The fishing and aquaculture sector is currently one of the world’s fastest growing sectors, with more than 58 million men, women and children involved in fishing and aquaculture globally, according to a 2014 UN FAO report. With the rapid expansion of the sector has come an increase in illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing, a practice that heightens the likelihood of over-fishing and increases risks of labor abuses, as vessels undertake longer and longer voyages in order to find fish, trapping their crews on board for longer and longer periods of time.
For the last two years, Verité has been meeting with migrant workers in the electronics sector in Malaysia to understand their experiences. Our findings shocked us – one in three of the hundreds of thousands of migrants working in Malaysian electronics manufacturing is in a condition of forced labor. These Burmese, Nepalis, Indians, Bangladeshis, Vietnamese, Thais, Indonesians and Filipinos work in modern factories. But because they are foreigners they are often employed by third-party labor agents rather than the factories themselves.
Inspectors came and went from a Walmart-certified factory in Guangdong Province in China, approving its production of more than $2 million in specialty items that would land on Walmart’s shelves in time for Christmas. But unknown to the inspectors, none of the playful items, including reindeer suits and Mrs. Claus dresses for dogs, that were supplied to Walmart had been manufactured at the factory. Instead, Chinese workers sewed the goods — which had been ordered by the Quaker Pet Group, a company based in New Jersey — at a rogue factory that had not gone through the certification process set by Walmart for labor, worker safety or quality, according to documents and interviews with officials involved.