Fish

Countries Where Fish is Reportedly Produced with Forced Labor and/or Child Labor

Fish Commodity Risk Map
  • Bangladesh (FL, CL)

  • Belize (FL)

  • Burundi (FL)

  • Cambodia (CL)

  • Cameroon (FL)

  • Cormoros (FL)

  • Congo, Republic of (FL)

  • Costa Rica (FL)

  • El Salvador (CL)

  • Fiji (FL)

  • Gabon (FL)

  • Ghana  (FL, CL)

  • Iceland (FL)

  • India (FL)

  • Indonesia (FL, CL)

  • Ireland (FL)

  • Israel (FL)

  • Jamaica (FL)

  • Kenya (FL, CL)

  • Korea (Republic of) (FL)

  • Madagascar (FL)

  • Malaysia (FL)

  • Mauritius (FL)

  • Micronesia (FL)

    • Namibia (FL)

    • New Zealand (FL)

    • Nicaragua (CL)

    • Pakistan (FL)

    • Palau (FL)

    • Papua New Guinea (FL)

    • Peru (CL)

    • Philippines (FL, CL)

    • Seychelles (FL)

    • Sierra Leone (FL)

    • Singapore (FL)

  • Solomon Islands (FL)

  • South Africa (FL)

  • Taiwan (FL)

  • Tanzania (FL, CL)

  • Thailand (FL)

  • Uganda (FL, CL)

  • United Kingdom (FL)

  • United States (FL)

  • Uruguay (FL)

  • Vietnam (FL, CL)

  • Yemen (CL)

Where are fish reportedly caught, harvested, and processed with trafficking and/or child labor?

According to the U.S. Department of State 2016Trafficking in Persons Report, forced labor or forced child labor is reported in the fishing/seafood sector in the following countries: Bangladesh, Belize, Burundi, Cameroon, Comoros, Republic of Congo, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Israel, Jamaica, Kenya, Korea, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mauritius, Micronesia, Namibia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea,  Philippines, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, United Kingdom, United States,  Uruguay, and Vietnam.[1]

The U.S. Department of Labor’s 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor notes that fish/seafood products are produced with forced labor and child labor in Bangladesh, Ghana, and Indonesia. The list notes forced labor in the production of fish products in Thailand. Child labor is noted in Cambodia, El Salvador, Kenya, Nicaragua, Peru, Philippines, Tanzania, Uganda, Vietnam, and Yemen.[2]

The U.S. Department of State 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report lists the Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Korea, New Zealand, Philippines, Taiwan, United Kingdom and United States as Tier 1 countries. El Salvador, Fiji, Indonesia, Jamaica, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Micronesia, Namibia, Nicaragua, Palau, Peru, Sierra Leone, Singapore, South Africa, Uganda, Uruguay, and Vietnam are listed as Tier 2 countries. Cameroon, Republic of Congo, Costa Rica, Gabon, Ghana, Malaysia, Seychelles, Solomon Islands, Tanzania, and Thailand are Tier 2 countries. Bangladesh, Belize, Burundi,  Comoros, and Papua New Guinea are Tier 3. Yemen is listed as a special case.[3]

Gathering region-specific data on forced labor in ocean fishing is difficult because many fishing vessels travel in international waters and have crews from multiple countries. In many instances, the country of vessel ownership, the port state, the vessel’s flag state, the coastal state, and the nationality of the workers on board will all be different. For example, the U.S. Department of State reported in 2015 that fishers from Indonesia, the Philippines, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, North Korea and Fiji were subject to indicators of forced labor on Taiwanese flagged vessels in Solomon Islands’ territorial waters.[4]

[1] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf

Note that this includes workers in forced labor or found to be in conditions of forced labor in recent years both in vessels leaving or docking in a country’s ports or active in a country’s territorial waters. 

[2] U.S. Department of Labor. 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor of Forced Labor. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/list-of-goods/

[3] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf

Note that this includes workers in forced labor or found to be in conditions of forced labor in recent years both in vessels leaving or docking in a country’s ports or active in a country’s territorial waters. 

[4] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2015. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/245365.pdf

What does trafficking and/or child labor in fishing look like?

Verité and the ILO have identified several contributing factors to forced labor in fishing. Employment in the fishing sector is highly dependent on the local context, the size of the vessel, and the type of fishing undertaken. Fishers employed on larger boats may have relatively formal employment agreements with the captain of the vessel or fleet ownership, but contracts are rare. Workers may be recruited through formal or informal labor recruiters, to whom they owe debt for their job placement. Often workers recruited through brokers will have no advanced knowledge of their actual employer. On small boats, employment relationships are predominantly casual. The relationship may be based on traditional relationships such as patronage, leading to a high level of dependence between the worker and boss.  Further complicating the employment relationship, payment on both large and small fishing vessels is often based on the traditional “share” system in which worker pay is based on an allotment of net proceeds from the catch after expenses for output (food, fuel, etc.) are deducted. Under the “share” system, workers are considered ‘partners’ in the fishing venture rather than employees, and are therefore denied legal protections available to other classes of workers.[5]

The “share” system also means that crew members share financial risk with owners. If a voyage does not clear a profit, workers may not be compensated, leaving them vulnerable to debt. Fishers may also have their pay docked for items consumed on board including cigarettes, alcohol, medicine, and in some cases, food. These items are often deducted at highly inflated rates. In some cases, a workers’ family may also take loans from the boat ownership while the fisher is at sea. These loans are also deducted from the fisher’s pay at high interest. The many fishers who are paid under some version of the “share” system often lack visibility of the calculation of profit and therefore their wages. For example, workers interviewed in the Philippines tuna sector noted that they are barred from observing the catch being weighed, leaving them reliant on the word of the ownership and leading to a perception of being cheated.[6]

Rates of abuse are high on fishing vessels. Regardless of formal employment relationships, crews are generally overseen by a captain or boss. The captain or boss has a high financial stake in a profitable voyage, incentivizing abusive management practices including actual or threatened physical abuse (hitting, threats or actual violence with weapons, denial of rest), verbal abuse (yelling, threats), and other forms of intimidation.[7] In extreme cases, crew members have reported witnessing murders of crew members at the hands of bosses onboard vessels.[8]

Workers aboard fishing vessels are inherently isolated, particularly on larger vessels that can stay at sea for extended periods of time, leaving workers with limited means of escape or avenues to report abuse. Fishing operations take place across national and maritime boundaries, leaving workers under the legal jurisdiction of the country in which the vessel is flagged. In cases where the vessel is using a flag of convenience, workers have severely limited legal protection.[9]

The ILO identifies fishing as a highly hazardous sector. Fishers routinely face hazards and dangerous conditions of work including rough weather, exposure to sun and salt water without protective clothing, slippery/moving work surfaces, regular use of knives/other sharp objects, inadequate sleeping quarters, inadequate sanitation, and lack of fresh food/water. In addition, the work itself is highly labor intensive. When setting nets or hauling a catch, workers may be required to work around the clock for days without breaks. Workers report high degrees of fatigue, which further increases the risk of accidents. In informal fishing, children are involved in diving for fish, because they are believed to have stronger lungs. These children may dive without any protective gear, putting them at high risk for injury or death. Fish processing, which can take place on board larger vessels or in port cities, carries its own risks. For example, workers who pack fish on ice often report frost bite symptoms in the fingers. Few workers are provided adequate health and safety gear. When injuries and illness do occur, medical care is rarely provided. Adult and child workers interviewed by Verité reported high levels of injury to fishing crew, as well as high rates of illness. Due to the highly hazardous nature of the work, fishing is generally considered a worst form of child labor.[10]

Labor rights abuses can also take place at the level of processing or canning. Burmese and Cambodian workers are also trafficked into working in fish processing plants in Thailand, through the same mechanisms that boat workers are recruited.[11]

Verité research found child labor in fish drying workshops in Indonesia. Girls as young as ten work alongside their mothers and are responsible for sorting, boiling, salt processing, and drying the fish. Because this work is conducted overnight, many of the girls drop out of school due to exhaustion.[12]

In the Philippines tuna canning sector, Verité found indicators of exploitive labor among the primarily female workers of the facility. There has been a shift towards a highly “casual” labor system. Workers are hired through manpower cooperatives or recruiters and therefore do not have a direct relationship with the canning facilities. Several workers reported wage deductions and forced overtime.[13]

[5] Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Fish in Indonesia: Platform (Jermal) Fishing, Small-Boat Anchovy Fishing, and Blast Fishing. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Indonesian-Fishing-Sector__9.16.pdf

Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Tuna in the Philippines. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Philippines-Tuna-Sector__9.16.pdf

International Labor Organization (ILO). Caught at Sea: Forced Labour and Trafficking in Fisheries. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

[6] Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Fish in Indonesia: Platform (Jermal) Fishing, Small-Boat Anchovy Fishing, and Blast Fishing. 2012. http://www.verite.org/sites/default/files/images/Research%20on%20Indicators%20of%20Forced%20Labor%20in%20the%20Indonesian%20Fishing%20Sector__9.16.pdf

Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Tuna in the Philippines. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Indonesian-Fishing-Sector__9.16.pdf

[7] Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Fish in Indonesia: Platform (Jermal) Fishing, Small-Boat Anchovy Fishing, and Blast Fishing. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Indonesian-Fishing-Sector__9.16.pdf

Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Tuna in the Philippines. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Philippines-Tuna-Sector__9.16.pdf

International Labor Organization (ILO). Caught at Sea: Forced Labour and Trafficking in Fisheries. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

[8] International Labor Organization (ILO). Caught at Sea: Forced Labour and Trafficking in Fisheries. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

[9] Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Fish in Indonesia: Platform (Jermal) Fishing, Small-Boat Anchovy Fishing, and Blast Fishing. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Indonesian-Fishing-Sector__9.16.pdf

Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Tuna in the Philippines. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Philippines-Tuna-Sector__9.16.pdf

International Labor Organization (ILO). Caught at Sea: Forced Labour and Trafficking in Fisheries. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

[10] Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Fish in Indonesia: Platform (Jermal) Fishing, Small-Boat Anchovy Fishing, and Blast Fishing. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Indonesian-Fishing-Sector__9.16.pdf

Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Tuna in the Philippines. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Philippines-Tuna-Sector__9.16.pdf

International Labor Organization (ILO). Caught at Sea: Forced Labour and Trafficking in Fisheries. 2013. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_214472.pdf

[11] Mirror Foundation. 2011. Trafficking and Forced Labour of Thai Males in Deep-sea Fishing (Bangkok). As cited in: International Labor Organization (ILO). Employment Practices and Working Conditions in Thailand’s Fishing Sector. 2013.  http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—asia/—ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_220596.pdf

[12] Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Fish in Indonesia: Platform (Jermal) Fishing, Small-Boat Anchovy Fishing, and Blast Fishing. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Indonesian-Fishing-Sector__9.16.pdf

[13] Verité. Research on Indicators of Forced Labor in the Supply Chain of Tuna in the Philippines. 2012. http://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Research-on-Indicators-of-Forced-Labor-in-the-Philippines-Tuna-Sector__9.16.pdf

CASE STUDY

Forced Child Labor, Lake Volta, Ghana

In Ghana, recruiters, many of whom are fishers themselves, approach the parents of young children and arrange to take them for training in fishing boats in the Lake Volta region. At the end of the training period, which may last up to five years, they are promised a payment of cash or goods.[14] Sometimes the brokers promise parents additional educational access and job training. They may also offer parents an advance for their child’s work. However, abusive work conditions and lack of interim payment may mean that children enter into a situation of human trafficking.[15]  Children are reportedly controlled by physical violence, threats, and withholding of adequate food, as well as intense social pressure.[16] These children are predominantly boys, but recent studies have found that girls are affected as well.  In certain communities, this practice is reportedly widespread with some sending villages reporting that up to 50 percent of children from that area will leave to work on Lake Volta.[17]

[14] UN Office on Drugs and Crime. Child Trafficking in Ghana. 2010. http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/frontpage/child-trafficking-in-ghana.html

[15] International Justice Mission. Child Trafficking into Forced Labor on Lake Volta, Ghana. 2016. https://www.ijm.org/sites/default/files/resources/ijm-ghana-report.pdf

[16] International Justice Mission. Child Trafficking into Forced Labor on Lake Volta, Ghana. 2016. https://www.ijm.org/sites/default/files/resources/ijm-ghana-report.pdf

[17] International Justice Mission. Child Trafficking into Forced Labor on Lake Volta, Ghana. 2016. https://www.ijm.org/sites/default/files/resources/ijm-ghana-report.pdf

CASE STUDY

Human Trafficking in Thai Fishing Sector

In Thailand recent media stories and NGO reports have documented horrific abuses of migrant workers in the seafood sector.

The labor shortage in the Thai fishing sector sets up a cycle of exploitation for workers.[18] As vessels stay at sea for longer periods of time seeking fish due to decreasing fish-stocks, they operate outside law enforcement oversight. Larger vessels may stay out for up to a year while smaller vessels transship caught fish. The unappealing nature of these long voyages increases the sector’s dependence on migrant workers.[19]

Migrant workers from Burma and Cambodia pay fees to brokers, often hoping to find jobs in construction or manufacturing. Instead, they may be sold to boat captains and subject to extreme violence, horrific conditions and up to 20 hours a day of forced work. Some were locked in chains and kept at sea for years.[20]

Verité research on migrant workers in the Thai fishing sector, published in 2016, confirmed many of these findings. Verité found that workers were in debt-bondage after deceptive recruitment. Several workers interviewed reported that they had been “sold” to a boat captain by a labor broker. Workers reportedly could not leave without facing financial penalties. Vessel-based workers reported that they had restricted freedom of movement, even while in port.[21]

[18] Undercurrent News. “Thai Fishing Industry in Labor Shortage.”  January 22, 2015.

[19] Verité. Recruitment Practices and Migrant Labor Conditions in Nestlé’s Thai Shrimp Supply Chain. 2016. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/NestleReport-ThaiShrimp_prepared-by-Verite.pdf

[20] Environmental Justice Foundation. Slavery at Sea: The Continued Plight of Trafficked Migrants in Thailand’s Fishing Industry. March 4, 2014. http://ejfoundation.org/node/1062

Hodal, Kate; Kelly, Chris. The Guardian. “Trafficked into slavery on Thai trawlers to catch food for prawns.” June 10, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2014/jun/10/-sp-migrant-workers-new-life-enslaved-thai-fishing

McDowell, Robin; Mendoza, Martha; Mason, Margie. Associated Press.  “Are Slaves Catching the Fish You Buy?” March 25, 2015. http://bigstory.ap.org/article/b9e0fc7155014ba78e07f1a022d90389/ap-investigation-are-slaves-catching-fish-you-buy

Stoakes, Emanuel; Kelly, Chris; Kelly, Annie. The Guardian. “Revealed: how the Thai fishing industry trafficks, imprisons and enslaves.” July 20, 2015. http://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/jul/20/thai-fishing-industry-implicated-enslavement-deaths-rohingya

Urbina, Ian.  New York Times. “Sea Slaves: The Human Misery That Feeds Pets and Livestock.” July 27, 2015. http://www.nytimes.com/2015/07/27/world/outlaw-ocean-thailand-fishing-sea-slaves-pets.html?_r=1

[21] Verité. Recruitment Practices and Migrant Labor Conditions in Nestlé’s Thai Shrimp Supply Chain. 2016. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/NestleReport-ThaiShrimp_prepared-by-Verite.pdf

CASE STUDY

Trafficking in the Irish Fishing Sector

A 2015 investigation by the Guardian found that fishers from Ghana, the Philippines, Egypt, and India were working under conditions of forced labor. Workers interviewed reported being recruited by labor agencies and some reported debt arising from illegal recruitment fees. Workers reported abusive conditions, including lower than legal minimum wage. Because they were undocumented, they were confined to the vessel even while it was in port as they feared being deported.[22]

[22] Lawrence, Felicity; McSweeney, Ella; Kelly, Annie; Heywood, Matt; Susman, Dan; Kelly, Chris; Domokos, John. “Revealed: trafficked migrant workers abused in Irish fishing industry.” The Guardian. November 2, 2015. https://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2015/nov/02/revealed-trafficked-migrant-workers-abused-in-irish-fishing-industry

Fish Supply Chain

The seafood sector is characterized by complex supply chains. In fact, ‘chain’ is a slightly misleading term because the layers, including multiple levels of middlemen, can be so intricate and opaque as to more closely resemble a web. Fish and shellfish are harvested in open waters or raised via aquaculture in ponds, tanks, or bounded coastal waters. Some wild-caught fish may be transported from the catching vessel by transshipment vessel to market. After harvest, fish are sold via auction, broker or market system and then packed and transported to processing facilities or wholesalers. Processors convert the fish to consumer products such as canned, frozen, or smoked products, and fillets or other fresh products. Some fish may pass through multiple levels of processing, while others, such as certain kinds of shellfish, are transported live. Wholesalers receive both processed products, as well as more minimally processed fresh fish, from both foreign and domestic sources. The wholesalers then distribute the products to retailers and restaurants, where they are purchased by consumers.

How do Trafficking and/or Child Labor in Fishing Affect Me?

Fish in yellow crates

Of all fish caught, 80 percent is used for food and 20 percent is made into fishmeal and oil.[23]

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) reports that “for two thirds of the world’s population, including most of the world’s poor, fish provides at least 40 percent of protein consumption.”[24] Americans consumed about 11.5 pounds of seafood in 2015, of which about 90 percent was imported.[25] About half of fish imported into the U.S. is wild-caught. In addition, a significant amount of fish landed in the U.S. is exported to foreign countries for processing, and then re-imported to the U.S. for consumption.[26]

[23] UN Conference on Trade and Development. Commodity Atlas: Fishery Products. 2004. http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditccom20041ch9_en.pdf

[24] UN Conference on Trade and Development. Commodity Atlas: Fishery Products. 2004. http://www.unctad.org/en/docs/ditccom20041ch9_en.pdf

[25] White, Cliff. “American Seafood Consumption up in 2015.” SeafoodSource. October 27, 2016.  http://www.seafoodsource.com/news/supply-trade/american-seafood-consumption-up-in-2015-landing-volumes-even

[26] Fishwatch. Sustainable Seafood: The Global Picture. https://www.fishwatch.gov/sustainable-seafood/the-global-picture

EXAMPLES

What Governments, Corporations, and Others are Doing

After reports of human trafficking in the seafood sector, Thailand rolled out wide-ranging activities to combat trafficking, although NGOs note that implementation has been inconsistent.[27] The Thai Ministry of Social Development and Human Security (MSDHS) rolled out the 2013 National Action Plan to Prevent and Suppress Human Trafficking (NAP) in the 2012-2013 fiscal year. The NAP lays out activities to combat human trafficking in Thailand, in the fishing sector specifically.  Stakeholders, including the Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF) have been critical of the plan and of the government follow-through as of 2014. EJF states that implementation of the NAP “fail[s] to address many of the systemic issues identified by the U.S. Department of State as undermining efforts to combat human trafficking within Thailand.”[28] And EJF investigation found that corruption is also a serious problem, with local officials enabling human trafficking.[29] To address the root cause of the labor shortage in the fishing sector, the government passed new labor laws that mandated a minimum wage, as well as other working conditions such as employment contracts and holidays. However, the U.S. Department of State reported that “law enforcement, inadequate human and financial resources, lack of systemic data linkages among relevant agencies, and fragmented coordination among regulatory agencies in the fishing industry contributed to overall impunity for exploitative labor practices in this sector.”[30]

In 2015, the government strengthened the legal framework governing the fishing sector, including legislation around working conditions, distant water fishing and vessel monitoring (VMS) requirements.[31] The government also created databases to collect and share information on human trafficking as well as fishing vessels, licenses, and crews.[32]

Thai seafood companies, with U.S. and European retailers, created the Shrimp Sustainable Supply Chain Task Force (Task Force) in 2014.  The Task Force is developing traceability and auditing systems and codes of conduct for vessels. A Vessel Watch subgroup is developing the Code of Conduct for ports, brokers and vessels. The Task Force is also aiming to “drive Fishery Improvement Projects (FIPs) in the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea.” A review of actions in the Thai seafood sector by Humanity United noted question around the potential long-term success of the Task Force and urged the group to seek additional representation from “national organisations and workers’ groups.”[33]

Singapore’s Response to Migrant Workers Seeking Assistance in Port

The U.S. Department of State reported that the government of Singapore funds Seafarers’ Welfare Centers to help fishers who seek assistance in Singapore’s ports. However, because many migrant workers are ineligible to receive work permits, they are not eligible to receive legal redress in Singapore.[34]

[27] Humanity United. Assessing Government and Business Responses to the Thai Seafood Crisis. 2016. https://humanityunited.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/FF_HU_Assessing-Reponse_FINAL_US-copy.pdf

[28] Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF). Slavery at Sea: The Continued Plight of Trafficked Migrants in Thailand’s Fishing Industry. 2014.  http://ejfoundation.org/sites/default/files/public/EJF_Slavery-at-Sea_report_2014_web-ok.pdf

[29] Environmental Justice Foundation (EJF). Slavery at Sea: The Continued Plight of Trafficked Migrants in Thailand’s Fishing Industry. 2014. http://ejfoundation.org/sites/default/files/public/EJF_Slavery-at-Sea_report_2014_web-ok.pdf

[30] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2015. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/245365.pdf

[31] Humanity United. Assessing Government and Business Responses to the Thai Seafood Crisis. 2016. https://humanityunited.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/FF_HU_Assessing-Reponse_FINAL_US-copy.pdf

[32] Humanity United. Assessing Government and Business Responses to the Thai Seafood Crisis. 2016. https://humanityunited.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/FF_HU_Assessing-Reponse_FINAL_US-copy.pdf

[33] Humanity United. Assessing Government and Business Responses to the Thai Seafood Crisis. 2016. https://humanityunited.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/05/FF_HU_Assessing-Reponse_FINAL_US-copy.pdf

[34] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2015. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/245365.pdf

LEARN MORE

Watch a series of videos by the EJF on flags of convenience and pirate fishing.

Read a report by Verité on trafficking in the Philippines.

Read a report by Verité on human trafficking for forced labor indicators in the supply chain of fish in Indonesia.

Read a report by Verité on human trafficking for forced labor indicators in the supply chain of tuna in the Philippines.

Read a report by the EJF about labor abuses in fishing.

Read a report by the International Transport Workers Federation on labor abuses in fishing and transport.