Commodity Atlas

Cocoa

Countries Where Cocoa is Reportedly Produced with Forced Labor and/or Child Labor

Cocoa Map of reported CL and/or FL Countries

Cocoa is reportedly produced with forced labor (FL) and/or child labor (CL) in the following countries:

  • Brazil (CL)
  • Burkina Faso (CL)
  • Cameroon (CL)
  • Côte d’Ivoire  (CL, FL)
  • Ghana (CL)
  • Guinea (CL)
  • Mali (CL)
  • Nigeria (CL, FL)
  • Sierra Leone (CL)
  • Togo (CL, FL)

Top ten countries that produce cocoa worldwide (FAOSTAT 2020):

  1. Côte d’Ivoire
  2. Ghana
  3. Indonesia
  4. Nigeria
  5. Ecuador
  6. Cameroon
  7. Brazil
  8. Peru
  9. Colombia
  10. Dominican Republic

Top ten countries that export cocoa worldwide (UN Comtrade 2020):[1a]

  1. Côte d’Ivoire
  2. Ghana
  3. Cameroon
  4. Ecuador
  5. Belgium
  6. Netherlands
  7. Malaysia
  8. Nigeria
  9. Dominican Republic
  10. Peru

[1a] International Trade Center (ITC Calculations based on UNCOMTRADE Statistics). http://www.intracen.org/

Top ten countries that import cocoa worldwide (UN Comtrade 2020):[2a]

  1. Netherlands
  2. Germany
  3. United States
  4. Malaysia
  5. Belgium
  6. Indonesia
  7. France
  8. Turkey
  9. United Kingdom
  10. Italy

[2a] International Trade Center (ITC Calculations based on UNCOMTRADE Statistics). http://www.intracen.org/

Where is cocoa reportedly produced with trafficking and/or child labor?

According to the U.S. Department of State 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report, cocoa is listed as being produced with forced labor or forced child labor in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Côte d’Ivoire (CDI), Ghana, Guinea, Mali, and Togo.[1b]

According to the U.S. Department of Labor List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, cocoa is produced with child and forced labor in Côte d’Ivoire and Nigeria and with child labor in Brazil, Cameroon, Ghana, Guinea, and Sierra Leone.[2b]

The U.S. Department of State 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report lists Brazil, Burkina Faso, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Sierra Leone, and Togo as Tier 2. Cameroon, Guinea, Mali, and Nigeria are listed as Tier 2 Watch List countries.[3]

How do trafficking and/or child labor in
cocoa production affect me?

Cocoa is the key ingredient of chocolate. It is also an important element of many cosmetics and soaps, pharmaceutical products, and baked goods which feature cocoa butter.

Europe consumes nearly 50 percent of the world’s chocolate, and the United States consumes approximately 25 percent.[40]

Cacao pods

Examples of what governments, corporations, and others are doing:

Due to high-profile advocacy from a number of organizations alleging the use of forced child labor in cocoa production, the confectionary industry and the Governments of Ghana, CDI, and the United States signed the Harkin-Engle Protocol committed to addressing child and forced labor in Ghana and CDI.[41] As part of this effort, the governments of Ghana and CDI successfully completed household surveys of child labor in the cocoa sector, the results of which were independently verified by third parties. Civil society, business, and government representatives oversaw this process through a multi-stakeholder body known as the International Cocoa Verification Board. An extension, known as the Joint Action Plan, was launched on September 13, 2010. The Action Plan commits a combined USD 17 million over ten years to build capacity in cocoa growing communities and to increase efforts to reduce the worst forms of child labor in cocoa production in Ghana and CDI by 70 percent by 2020.[42] The signing of the Joint Action Plan also involved the formation of the Child Labor Cocoa Coordinating Group (CLCCG), which is a public-private partnership comprised of representation from the governments of CDI, Ghana, and the United States, and the international chocolate and cocoa industry. The CLCCG leverages resources and facilitates knowledge sharing to help eliminate child labor in West African cocoa production.[43] In 2020, the CLCCG released a follow-up report, stating: “There have been considerable advancements within the Framework areas of concentration, in particular the increase in the accessibility of education and vocational services, implementation of [Child Labor Monitoring Systems] in cocoa growing areas, and effective community-led approaches prioritizing action on child labor.” The follow-up report also described developments in legislation and policy addressing child and hazardous labor in cocoa production in Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana. The report also described various research, survey and awareness projects funded by industry stakeholders and the U.S. Department of Labor.[44]

In 2019, Solidaridad Network’s bean-to-bar partnership with Casa Lasevicius in Brazil generated a gross income of 75,000 reals, or 15,000 euros, for eight producers in the partnership.[45] In Nicaragua, Solidaridad Network worked with BICU University to develop the first agroforestry cocoa diploma, prioritizing participation among women and youth.[46] In Honduras, members of the national network of women in cocoa and chocolate learned to process and market cocoa products, launching several women-led businesses.[47] In 2019, Solidaridad Network also helped establish the first roundtable in West Africa to secure favorable land tenure arrangements for cocoa farmers in Ghana. In Liberia and Sierra Leone, Solidaridad Network contributed to national cocoa platforms as well as policy and regulatory arrangements.[48]

The World Cocoa Foundation, funded by cocoa industry members, seeks to improve livelihoods in cocoa farming communities and families worldwide.[49] In May 2014, the WCF and cocoa companies established CocoaAction which works in consultation with the governments of Ghana and CDI to advance sustainability and improve livelihoods for 300,000 farmers in 1,200 cocoa growing communities.[50] In 2018, CocoaAction companies reached  261,134 farmers with the “productivity package” which supported farmers in agricultural, planting and soil fertility practices; 168,283 farmers were reached in Cote d’Ivoire and 92,851 in Ghana. In 2018, CocoaAction companies also completed 1,306 community development assessments, with 848 assessments in Cote d’Ivoire and 458 in Ghana.[51]

The International Cocoa Initiative (ICI) is an industry-funded multi-stakeholder initiative that focuses on the elimination of child labor in Ghana and Côte d’Ivoire. Under this goal, the ICI works to mobilize community child labor protection committees and provides awareness raising around child labor and child-protection issues, as well as working to improve access to education and other social services in cocoa growing communities.[52] The ICI has reported that in the communities in which it works, school enrollment rates have increased by more than 20 percent. The ICI also reported its methods have led to a 20 percent reduction in child labor among ICI-assisted communities, and a 50 percent reduction in hazardous child labor across at-risk children identified by ICI’s monitoring systems.[53] However, the ICI reported that in 2020, industry-backed child protection systems covered only 10-20 percent of the cocoa supply chain.[54]

The ICI has developed and implemented – in partnership with companies – the Child Labor Monitoring and Remediation System (CLMRS), which reportedly has high rates of child labor identification.[55] The CLMRS was developed and piloted in one company’s supply chain in Côte d’Ivoire, before being adopted by nine companies in the 2015 CocoaAction Strategy. The CocoaAction Strategy committed these companies to extend the CLMRS so that 300,000 farmers are covered by 2020. According to a 2017 report, ICI and seven of its member companies expanded CLMRS coverage to almost 100,000 farmers.[56]  In 2019, ICI collaborated with Nestle and ECOM to extend the implementation of CLMRS to over 11,000 cocoa farmers in Ghana.[57] In 2021, 21 private sector companies from the cocoa and chocolate industry were represented among ICI’s board members, contributing partners, and advisors.[58]

In April 2018, The Hershey Company announced the launch of Cocoa For Good, a “holistic cocoa sustainability strategy” that is dedicated to addressing key issues facing cocoa-growing communities including poverty, poor nutrition, at-risk youth, and vulnerable ecosystems. The strategy includes a commitment to eliminate child labor.[59] The Hershey Company committed to increasing their Cocoa For Good direct sourcing program to “100% coverage of our high-risk areas of Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana by 2025.” The company also expanded their Child Labor Monitoring and Remediation Systems, implemented in partnership with the ICI, to cover “100% of our high-risk sourcing in Cote d’Ivoire and Ghana,” and “assessing more than 125,000 children, a 350% increase.”[60]

Product certification is a consumer-facing tool that provides economic, social and environmental standards for producers and producer groups. The major sustainability standards with a labor component in African cocoa production are Fair Trade and Rainforest Alliance. In addition to the social and environmental standards, Rainforest Alliance focuses on increasing producer productivity and product quality. Fair Trade focuses on increasing profit shares earned by producers and coops; Fair Trade buyers pay a higher price which farmers receive in a minimum price as well as a premium paid to cooperatives. Fair Trade chocolate production represents about 38 percent of certified cocoa globally. Côte d’Ivoire and Ghana both produce Fair Trade Certified cocoa. 10.2 percent of global cocoa production is certified by Rainforest Alliance. [61]

LEARN MORE

  • Watch a short video by the International Labor Organization (ILO) on child labor in Cameroon.
  • Read a manual by the ILO on best practices for reducing child labor in cocoa farms.

What does trafficking and/or child labor in
cocoa production look like?

A 2020 report by NORC at the University of Chicago found that 1.56 million children were engaged in cocoa production: about 790,000 children in Côte d’Ivoire and 770,000 in Ghana. The study, which focused on the children working on farms in smallholder contexts in the two countries, suggests that, hazardous child labor appears to be the most common child labor risk in cocoa production.[4] The study found that 37 percent of children in cocoa growing areas of Côte d’Ivoire and 51 percent of children in cocoa growing areas of Ghana were engaged in hazardous work.[5] While this finding marked an increase in the overall estimated occurrence of hazardous child work since previous surveys conducted in 2008-2009, the increase coincided with a significant increase in cocoa production in the same period across both countries.[6]

Incidences of hazardous child labor appear to be most concentrated in newly established cocoa growing areas and/or remote geographic regions,[7] suggesting a causative link between expansion of the sector into new production areas and a correlated rise in hazardous child labor risk. Analysis from the NORC study notes that that, “as high production areas become increasingly saturated with cocoa farming, cocoa production activities are expanding into new areas where the infrastructure is weak, and awareness related to child labor and hazardous work is limited.”[8] At the same time, in the interest of efficiency and implementing programming that can impact a higher number of families, prevention and remediation programming tends to focus on more established cocoa production areas, [9] leaving a potential gap in needed intervention in the emerging production areas.

Recent studies also show that a risk of forced labor in cocoa production in Ghana and  Côte d’Ivoire is present, although the relative scale of risk appears to be limited in comparison with the risks of hazardous child labor noted above. A study published by the Walk Free Foundation in 2018 found that approximately 14,000 children reported that they were forced to work by someone other than their parents and that approximately 3,700 adults were forced to work in the cocoa sector in Ghana between 2013 and 2017.[10] In Cote d’Ivoire, the same study found that approximately 10,000 adults reported that they were forced to work in the cocoa sector and that approximately 2,000 children reported that they were forced to work by someone other than a parent.[11]

Children working in cocoa can be exposed to pesticides and are often injured by machetes used in harvesting.[12] They are also vulnerable to musculoskeletal disorders, eye injuries, skin rashes, and coughing. They often lack access to protective equipment.[13] The NORC study found that in aggregate, use of sharp tools, carrying heavy loads, and exposure to agrochemicals were the most common factors contributing to findings of hazardous work in cocoa production between 2018 and 2019. Exposure to agro-chemicals was the hazard noted to have increased the most significantly between 2008-2009 and 2018-2019, with the proportion of children exposed to agro-chemical products increasing from 5 percent to 24 percent overall.[14]

Children are often involved in cocoa production in a variety of ways, primarily through work within family structures.[15] Children migrating voluntarily, to join an extended family or community member or to work for an employer, may be motivated by the desire to earn an independent income to support themselves or their families, to seek schooling, or to build social capital or life experience.[16] If children live and work away from their parents, however, they are considered to be at heightened risk for labor rights violations.[17]

In some country contexts, there are reports that suggest deceptive recruitment of child or young adult migrant workers. According to the U.S. State Department in 2020, NGO reports indicated Malian children were forced to labor on cocoa farms in Cote d’Ivoire. The 2020 Trafficking in Persons Report also stated Burkinabe children were transported for forced labor in cocoa production, and traffickers forced Togolese children to work on cocoa farms. According to the report: “Observers stated trafficking networks are predominantly community-based and loosely organized by local actors;” fraudulent recruiters work transnationally with “loosely affiliated networks to transport victims” to work in sectors such as cocoa harvesting in Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire.[18]

Cocoa production may take place in remote areas where workers are isolated and there is a lack of social infrastructure; this can result in the absence of formal education systems for migrant children and absence of systems for workers to address concerns.[19] There have been reports of young migrant workers in Cote d’Ivoire living and working in such settings where they have to fend for themselves in terms of medical care and food.[20] In Cote d’Ivoire, cocoa production often occurs in protected forest areas that may be geographically isolated. In addition to contributing to severe deforestation in Cote d’Ivoire, the illicit nature of this cocoa farming, which often occurs outside of traceability, community-based, and cooperative-based systems and beyond the reach of law enforcement, can exacerbate the vulnerability of workers, especially migrant workers, employed in these areas.[21]

Migrant cocoa workers may also incur debt related to their recruitment and transportation which can further prevent them from leaving their jobs. Compounding recruitment-related debt, migrant workers may have deductions taken from their already low wages to cover items like food and medical care. In order to pay off this debt, some workers may have to continue working beyond the time frame originally agreed upon in order to access their earnings.[22] Verité research on forced labor indicators among cocoa workers in Cote d’Ivoire found that domestic and transnational migrant workers who have recruitment-related debt and who are in their first years of employment in the cocoa sector likely have the highest vulnerability to these forced labor indicators.[23]

The high input costs related to cocoa farming, including tools, protective clothing/boots, hired labor/sharecropping (if applicable), local transportation, cooperative membership (if applicable), pesticides, and seedlings[24] as well as low profits from selling cocoa can result in overall low incomes for cocoa primary producers and sharecroppers. The final report from The Global Business of Forced Labour Project, a research project that focused on tea and cocoa supply chains of markets in the UK, found that patterns of exploitation, including forced labor, exist at the bottom of cocoa supply chains.[25] The report notes that 23 percent of cocoa workers interviewed in Ghana performed some work activities for which they were not paid and that 60 percent of cocoa workers interviewed had gone into debt during their time working in cocoa production[26] — although the mechanisms of this debt or the degree to which it contributed to coercive working conditions was not reported. The report also found that cocoa workers in Ghana earn far less than the Ghanaian living wage reporting 5 GHS compared to the 47 GHS living wage.[27] This finding is echoed in Cote d’Ivoire where, according to a 2018 study, 71 percent of cocoa workers in Cote d’Ivoire make below a living wage,[28] and many cocoa farmers live on less than one dollar a day.[29] Having less cash on hand can drive producers and sharecroppers, who either own or have access to land and are in a position to engage hired workers, to use family labor rather than employ workers or offer very low rates thereby negatively impacting workers well-being. Using family labor, especially when adequate educational opportunities are not available, can increase the risk of child labor.[30]

Child labor in cocoa production also occurs in Brazil in family farm and smallholder contexts. A 2018 survey by the International Labour Organization and Brazil’s Labor Prosecution Office found that “child labor is a common practice at the base of the cocoa production chain” and that at least 8,000 Brazilian children and teens worked in the chocolate production chain in Brazil’s major cocoa-producing regions.[31] The survey also found evidence of fraud in sharecropping arrangements, with processes hiding rights violations like slave labor.[32] According to the survey, there was “an extensive network of middlemen who commit tax fraud and tax evasion and buy cocoa from farmers and then pass it over to big cocoa processors and big mills.”[33] The relationship between family farmers and landowners (who work in ‘partnership’ sharing profits) in Pará and Bahia has been described as “abusive and sometimes considered modern slavery.[34]

 

Cocoa production and supply chain:

According to the World Cocoa Foundation, between five and six million cocoa farmers exist worldwide.[35] Small, family-run farms account for 80 to 90 percent of all cocoa production.[36] Due to the small average size of producers, cooperatives and other producer organizations can play an important role in enabling market access. These cooperatives may participate in voluntary certification programs.[37]

Over 70 percent of cocoa is grown in the West African countries of CDI, Ghana, Nigeria, and Cameroon.[38] CDI alone represents 40 percent of global cocoa production. Cocoa trees produce cocoa pods, reaching peak production levels when they are around five years old. Farmers harvest cocoa pods, often using machetes. While cocoa pods may ripen throughout the growing season, there are often two peak production harvests each year. Harvest times and yields can be greatly impacted by changing weather patterns. The pods are split open, and the beans are removed and heaped into piles to ferment. After the beans ferment for several days, and the pulp that naturally surrounds them melts away, the beans are spread out to dry in the sun. After the beans are dried, they’re stored in sacks before being picked up by collectors or transporters. After processing, the beans are exported to the global market, where they are purchased by manufacturers to be processed into various cocoa products for commercial consumption.[39a]

Most of the processing takes place in the United States or Europe, notably Germany, Switzerland, the Netherlands, Belgium, and the United Kingdom. Though cocoa processing and trade is centralized, industry groups argue that tracing cocoa usage to the actual farms where cocoa is grown is not currently possible in many cases due to the high number of middlemen, which can prevent industry groups from directly monitoring their suppliers.[39b]

Endnotes

[1b] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2020.  https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/2020-TIP-Report-Complete-062420-FINAL.pdf.

[2b] U.S. Department of Labor. 2020  List of Goods Produced by Child Labor of Forced Labor. https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/ILAB/child_labor_reports/tda2019/2020_TVPRA_List_Online_Final.pdf.

[3] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2020.  https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/2020-TIP-Report-Complete-062420-FINAL.pdf.

[4] NORC at the University of Chicago. NORC Final Report: Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Production in Cocoa Growing Areas of Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana. October 2020. https://www.norc.org/PDFs/Cocoa%20Report/NORC%202020%20Cocoa%20Report_English.pdf.

[5] NORC at the University of Chicago. NORC Final Report: Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Production in Cocoa Growing Areas of Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana. October 2020. https://www.norc.org/PDFs/Cocoa%20Report/NORC%202020%20Cocoa%20Report_English.pdf.

[6] NORC at the University of Chicago. NORC Final Report: Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Production in Cocoa Growing Areas of Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana. October 2020. https://www.norc.org/PDFs/Cocoa%20Report/NORC%202020%20Cocoa%20Report_English.pdf.

[7] NORC at the University of Chicago. NORC Final Report: Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Production in Cocoa Growing Areas of Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana. October 2020. https://www.norc.org/PDFs/Cocoa%20Report/NORC%202020%20Cocoa%20Report_English.pdf.

[8] NORC at the University of Chicago. NORC Final Report: Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Production in Cocoa Growing Areas of Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana. October 2020. https://www.norc.org/PDFs/Cocoa%20Report/NORC%202020%20Cocoa%20Report_English.pdf.

[9] NORC at the University of Chicago. NORC Final Report: Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Production in Cocoa Growing Areas of Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana. October 2020. https://www.norc.org/PDFs/Cocoa%20Report/NORC%202020%20Cocoa%20Report_English.pdf.

[10] “Cocoa.” The Global Slavery Index. 2018. https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/2018/findings/importing-risk/cocoa/

[11] “Cocoa.” The Global Slavery Index. 2018. https://www.globalslaveryindex.org/2018/findings/importing-risk/cocoa/

[12] Hawksley, Humphrey. “Ivory Coast Cocoa Farms Child Labor: Little Change.” BBC News. November 10, 2011.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15681986

[13] Mull, Diane L and Steven R Kirkhorn. Child Labor in Ghana Cocoa Production: Focus upon Agricultural Tasks, Ergonomic Exposures, and Associated Injuries and Illnesses. Public Health Reports. December 2005.

[14] NORC at the University of Chicago. NORC Final Report: Assessing Progress in Reducing Child Labor in Cocoa Production in Cocoa Growing Areas of Cote D’Ivoire and Ghana. October 2020. https://www.norc.org/PDFs/Cocoa%20Report/NORC%202020%20Cocoa%20Report_English.pdf.

[15] Embode; Commissioned by Mondelez International. Children at the Heart. 2016. https://www.cocoalife.org/~/media/CocoaLife/en/download//article/FULL_REPORT_Ghana_Mondelez_Embode_ChildrenattheHeart.pdf

[16] Massart, Guy S. International Cocoa Initiative. A Study of Child Mobility and Migrant Flows to the Cocoa-Producing Communities in Ghana. 2012. As cited in: Children at the Heart. 2016. https://www.cocoalife.org/~/media/CocoaLife/en/download//article/FULL_REPORT_Ghana_Mondelez_Embode_ChildrenattheHeart.pdf

Hashim, Iman; Thorsen, Dorte. Child Migration in Africa. 2011. http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:387010/FULLTEXT01.pdf

[17] Verité. “Assessment of Forced Labor Risk in the Cocoa Sector of Cote d’Ivoire.” February 2019. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Verite-Report-Forced-Labor-in-Cocoa-in-CDI.pdf

[18] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2020.  https://www.state.gov/wp-content/uploads/2020/06/2020-TIP-Report-Complete-062420-FINAL.pdf.

[19] Verité. “Assessment of Forced Labor Risk in the Cocoa Sector of Cote d’Ivoire.” February 2019. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Verite-Report-Forced-Labor-in-Cocoa-in-CDI.pdf

[20] Robson, Paul. Anti-Slavery International. Ending Child Trafficking in West Africa Lessons from the Ivorian cocoa sector. 2011. http://www.antislavery.org/includes/documents/cm_docs/2011/c/cocoa_report_for_website.pdf

[21] Verité. “Assessment of Forced Labor Risk in the Cocoa Sector of Cote d’Ivoire.” February 2019. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Verite-Report-Forced-Labor-in-Cocoa-in-CDI.pdf

[22] Verité. “Assessment of Forced Labor Risk in the Cocoa Sector of Cote d’Ivoire.” February 2019. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Verite-Report-Forced-Labor-in-Cocoa-in-CDI.pdf

[23] Verité. “Assessment of Forced Labor Risk in the Cocoa Sector of Cote d’Ivoire.” February 2019. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Verite-Report-Forced-Labor-in-Cocoa-in-CDI.pdf

[24] Cocoa Barometer. Cocoabarometer.org

[25] Genevieve LeBaron. The Global Business of Forced Labour: Report of Findings. SPERI & University of Sheffield. 2018. http://globalbusinessofforcedlabour.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Report-of-Findings-Global-Business-of-Forced-Labour.pdf

[26] Genevieve LeBaron. The Global Business of Forced Labour: Report of Findings. SPERI & University of Sheffield. 2018. http://globalbusinessofforcedlabour.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Report-of-Findings-Global-Business-of-Forced-Labour.pdf

[27] Genevieve LeBaron. The Global Business of Forced Labour: Report of Findings. SPERI & University of Sheffield. 2018. http://globalbusinessofforcedlabour.ac.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/05/Report-of-Findings-Global-Business-of-Forced-Labour.pdf

[28] Walk Free Foundation. “Bitter Sweets: Prevalence of forced labour & child labour in the cocoa sectors of Côte d’Ivoire & Ghana.” September 2018.  https://cocoainitiative.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/Cocoa-Report_181004_V15-FNL_digital.pdf

[29] International Cocoa Initiative. Sustainable Development Goals: Child Labour in the Cocoa Sector. March 2017.  http://www.cocoainitiative.org/news-media-post/sustainable-development-goals-child-labour-in-the-cocoa-sector/

[30] Verité. “Assessment of Forced Labor Risk in the Cocoa Sector of Cote d’Ivoire.” February 2019. https://www.verite.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/Verite-Report-Forced-Labor-in-Cocoa-in-CDI.pdf

IDH and Fair Price. The True Price of Cocoa from Ivory Coast. 2016. http://www.chocolatemakers.nl/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/TP-Cocoa.pdf

International Labor Rights Forum. Fairness Gap. 2014. http://www.laborrights.org/publications/fairness-gap

[31] Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. “Brazil: Survey by Intl. Labor Org. & Labour Prosecution Office reveals 8,000 children and teenagers under child labour in the cocoa supply chain.” December 5, 2018. https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/latest-news/brazil-survey-by-intl-labour-org-labour-prosecution-office-reveals-8000-children-and-teenagers-under-child-labour-in-the-cocoa-supply-chain/.

[32] Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. ”Brazil: Survey by Intl. Labor Org. & Labour Prosecution Office reveals 8,000 children and teenagers under child labour in the cocoa supply chain.” December 5, 2018. https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/latest-news/brazil-survey-by-intl-labour-org-labour-prosecution-office-reveals-8000-children-and-teenagers-under-child-labour-in-the-cocoa-supply-chain/.

[33] Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. ”Brazil: Survey by Intl. Labor Org. & Labour Prosecution Office reveals 8,000 children and teenagers under child labour in the cocoa supply chain.” December 5, 2018. https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/latest-news/brazil-survey-by-intl-labour-org-labour-prosecution-office-reveals-8000-children-and-teenagers-under-child-labour-in-the-cocoa-supply-chain/.

[34] Business and Human Rights Resource Centre. ”Brazil: Prosecutor alleges that in cocoa farms the relationship between family farmers who work in ’partnership’ with landowners can be abusive & sometimes considered modern slavery.” November 30, 2018. https://www.business-humanrights.org/en/latest-news/brazil-prosecutor-alleges-that-in-cocoa-farms-the-relationship-between-family-farmers-who-work-in-partnership-with-landowners-can-be-abusive-sometimes-considered-modern-slavery/.

[35] World Cocoa Federation. Cocoa Market Update. April 2014. http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Cocoa-Market-Update-as-of-4-1-2014.pdf

[36] World Cocoa Federation. Cocoa Market Update. April 2014. http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Cocoa-Market-Update-as-of-4-1-2014.pdf

[37] GEFAK mbH. Study on the state of farmer cooperatives in the cocoa sector of Côte d’Ivoire. 2015.

F.E., Omoregbee; D.U., Okoedo-Okojie. Assessment of the Role of Cooperative Societies in Cocoa Production by Smallholders in Owan-West Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. 2008. http://www.agrosciencejournal.com/public/agro7-8.pdf.

Fairtrade International, Fairtrade Africa. Fair Trade Cocoa in West Africa. 2014. www.fairtrade.net/fileadmin/user_upload/content/2009/resources/Fairtrade-cocoa-WestAfrica-report_2014.pdf

[38] World Cocoa Federation.  About Cocoa.  http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/learn-about-cocoa/tree-to-table/how-chocolate-is-made.asp

World Cocoa Foundation. Our Approach.  http://worldcocoafoundation.org/our-work/our-approach/

[39a] International Cocoa Organization (ICCO). How Exactly is Cocoa Harvested? https://www.icco.org/faq/58-cocoa-harvesting/130-how-exactly-is-cocoa-harvested.html

World Cocoa Foundation. Cocoa Market Update. April 2014. http://www.worldcocoafoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/Cocoa-Market-Update-as-of-4-1-2014.pdf

[39b] Hawksley, Humphrey. “Ivory Coast Cocoa Farms Child Labor: Little Change.” BBC News. November 10, 2011.  http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15681986

[40] CNN Freedom Project. “Who Consumes the Most Chocolate?” January 7, 2012. http://thecnnfreedomproject.blogs.cnn.com/2012/01/17/who-consumes-the-most-chocolate

[41] U.S. Department of Labor. A Story of Chocolate and Child Labor. https://blog.dol.gov/2015/07/30/a-story-of-chocolate-and-child-labor/

[42] U.S. Department of Labor. A Story of Chocolate and Child Labor. https://blog.dol.gov/2015/07/30/a-story-of-chocolate-and-child-labor/

[43] U.D. Department of Labor. Child Labor in the Production of Cocoa. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/child-labor-cocoa

[44] U.S. Department of Labor. CLCCG Ten Year Report 2010-2020. https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/ILAB/reports/CLCCG-Ten-Year-Report.pdf.

[45] Solidaridad Network. ”Towards Cocoa’s Future.” Accessed March 1, 2021. https://www.solidaridadnetwork.org/supply-chains/cocoa.

[46] Solidaridad Network. ”Towards Cocoa’s Future.” Accessed March 1, 2021. https://www.solidaridadnetwork.org/supply-chains/cocoa.

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