Senegal Country Overview

Politics

Senegal is a presidential republic in Northeast Africa. In April 2012, President Macky Sall was elected, defeating Abdoulaye Wade, who was attempting to secure a third term as president. During Wade’s presidency, he had repeatedly tried to amend the constitution to increase his executive power. Wade never succeeded in amending Senegal’s constitution, and in 2016 a constitutional referendum was passed limiting the term of presidency to five years with a maximum of two consecutive terms.[1] According to the World Bank, Senegal has had three peaceful political transitions since gaining independence in 1960, and it is among the most stable democratic countries in Africa.[2]

 

Economy

Senegal is classified by the World Bank as a low income economy.[3] According to the World Bank, Senegal is the second fastest growing economy in West Africa and the fourth fastest in Sub-Saharan Africa. The country’s GDP growth has been stable, at 6.5 percent in 2015 and 6.6 percent in 2016.[4] The sectors that are the main drivers of the country’s economy include mining, construction, tourism, fisheries, and agriculture.[5] Senegal’s top exports are gold, petroleum products, frozen fish, and cement.[6] Threats to Senegal’s economy include lowlands seasonal flooding and periodic droughts, as well as deforestation, overgrazing, soil erosion, desertification, and overfishing.[7]

According to the U.S. Department of State, Senegal is welcoming to foreign investment, but investors reportedly struggle with bureaucracy, access to financing, and an inflexible labor market. The Senegalese government is currently implementing a large development plan to increase private investment and reform the country’s economic system.[8]

Social/Human Development

There are three main ethnic groups in Senegal: Wolof (38.7 percent), Pular (26.5 percent), and Serer (15 percent). There are also a few thousand black Mauritanian refugees living in the country as they were expelled from Mauritania in a border conflict with Senegal in 1989.[9] There is widespread poverty in the country; In 2010, 46.7 percent of the population was at or under the national poverty line.[10] The percentage of the population living at USD 1.90 a day (2011 international prices) has declined dramatically, from 68.43 percent in 1991 to 49.25 percent in 2001 to 37.98 percent in 2011, but remains high.[11] There are considerable geographic disparities in Senegal with higher rates of poverty in rural areas than urban areas.[12]

The Senegalese population is growing and almost 60 percent of the population is under 25 years of age. According to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), there are high rates of unemployment and illiteracy.[13] The World Bank reports that some efforts have been made to improve education access in the country, but many children still go to Koranic schools that do not fulfill public education curriculum requirements.[14] Senegal’s Human Development Index score for 2015 was 0.494, ranking the country 162 out of 188 countries.[15] 

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2 Watch List

The Trafficking in Persons Report notes artisanal gold mining as the primary exported supply chain with trafficking and trafficking vulnerability. It also notes sex trafficking in regions surrounding gold mining sites.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Senegal has had a negative net migration rate since the early 1970s.[16] Senegal was historically a destination country, but in the 1970s the country experienced an economic crisis and emigration increased.[17] There were an estimated 17,803 persons of concern in Senegal at the end of 2016, including an estimated 14,584 refugees and 3,219 asylum-seekers.[18] According to the U.S. Department of State in 2016, there are 13,000 Mauritian refugees in Senegal, many of whom have expressed a desire to stay in the country permanently.[19] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHRC) reports that there were no stateless persons or internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the country at the end of 2016.[20] However, the U.S. Department of State has cited the Senegalese government as reporting that there are 10,000 IDPs in the country, and international humanitarian assistance agencies stated that there could be as many as 24,000 IDPs. The IDPs, who are slowly returning to their villages, fled their homes during the Casamance conflict.[21] The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance and the Senegalese government have been in conflict since the 1980s. An unofficial cease-fire has been in existence since 2012 and appears to be largely effective after several previous peace deals had failed.[22]

The largest source countries for migrants to Senegal include Mauritania and Guinea, followed by Mali, Guinea-Bissau, Sierra Leone, and France.[23]

 

The most common destination countries for migrants from Senegal include The Gambia and France, followed by Italy, Spain, Mauritania, and the U.S.[24]

Exports and Trade

Senegal’s top exports in 2016 were fish, gold, mineral fuels, cement, and inorganic chemicals.[25]

The top importers of all goods from Senegal include India, Switzerland, China, and Spain.[26]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

Although the law provides for the rights of workers (with exceptions for security force members, including police, customs officers, and judges) to form and organize unions, a union must receive authorization from the Ministry of Interior in order to be legally recognized. The law provides no legal recourse if the minister denies a union registration.[27] The law also allows the state prosecutor to dissolve or deregister unions if they do not comply with union regulations. Foreigners are permitted to hold union office, but only if they have lived in Senegal for five years and if their country of origin provides the same right to Senegalese workers.[28] Workers are granted the right to engage in collective bargaining and to strike. However, the right to strike has many restrictions, including that the workplace must be empty during a strike and that the strike may not hinder the rights of others to work or enter their place of work. Employers are also permitted to replace striking workers during a strike. Workers in the informal sector, including subsistence farmers, domestic workers, and employees of family businesses, are excluded from the rights granted in the labor code.[29]

Working Conditions

 The law sets the minimum hourly wage at CFA 209 (USD 0.36), though agricultural workers have a lower minimum hourly wage of CFA 183 (USD 0.31). Foreign workers and migrant workers are covered by the minimum wage. For the majority of the formal sector, the legal workweek is 40 to 48 hours with one 24-hour rest period per week. Excessive or compulsory overtime is not prohibited by law in the formal sector although premium pay for overtime is required. The informal sector is excluded from workweek and overtime regulations. Violations of wage, overtime, and safety standards are reportedly common and the Labor Inspection Office is considered ineffective at enforcing the law.[30]

Discrimination

The law prohibits discrimination in employment based on national origin, race, sex, disability, and religion and calls for equal pay for equal work. According to the U.S. Department of State, these laws are not effectively enforced and women in particular experience considerable employment discrimination.[31]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits forced labor, but the U.S. Department of State reports that the government has not fully met the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. However, the government is reportedly making significant efforts to do so.[32]

Child Labor

The law sets the legal minimum working age at 15. The employment of children is not prohibited in all hazardous occupations. For example, the law allows male children under age 16 to perform “light work” in underground mines and quarries and children as young as age 12 to work in agriculture in a family setting. Education is compulsory for children between six and 16 years old. The U.S. Department of State has reported that child labor laws are generally unenforced.[33] 

Civil Society Organizations

The U.S. Department of State reports that domestic and international human rights groups “generally operated without government restriction” and that “government officials were somewhat cooperative.”[34] Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are required to register with the Ministry of the Interior.[35] According to Amnesty International, journalists and artists who expressed dissent have been intimidated, harassed, and even detained arbitrarily.[36]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

[37]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Senegal scores an 82.3 in the 2017 Fragile States Index, placing it between the “Warning” and “Alert” Categories, a slight improvement from the country’s score of 81 in 2016.[38]

Senegal’s percentile rank for political stability and absence of violence/terrorism was 40 on the Work Bank’s 2015 Worldwide Governance Indicators report.[39]

The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance and the Senegalese government have been in conflict since the 1980s. An unofficial cease-fire has been in existence since 2012 and appears to be largely effective after several previous peace deals had failed.[40]

 
LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The U.S. Department of State reports that street crime is common in Senegal.[41] The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report ranked Senegal at 69/138 and 76/138 for business costs of crime and violence and organized crime respectively.[42]

 
STATE PERSECUTION

No widespread state persecution has been reported. However, Freedom House has observed that journalists and artists who expressed dissent were subjected to intimidation, harassment, and arbitrary arrest. Same-sex sexual activity is also a criminal offense in the country and individuals have been prosecuted.[43]

 
LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scores Senegal as a 45 out of 100, where a 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and a 100 signals “Very Clean.” Mauritania is ranked 64 out of 176 on that index.[44] According to the U.S. Department of State, corruption is in an issue in the country, most prominently within the judiciary, police, and executive branch. The government reportedly does not have effective mechanisms to investigate and punish corruption and therefore officials are able to engage in corruption with impunity.[45]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Senegal is scored in the low human development category, according to the UN Human Development Index, with a rank of 162 out of 188 countries and a score of 0.494. Senegal’s human development score is higher than all its neighbors except for Mauritania, which has a score of 0.513.[46]

 
LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

Senegal has a relatively high level of poverty, with 51.9 percent of the population determined to be living in multi-dimensional poverty according to the UN. When adjusted for inequality, the Human Development Index score falls to 0.331.[47] Senegal’s gross national income (GNI) per capita has fluctuated. It was USD 980 in 2015, USD 1,040 in 2010, USD 510 in 2000, and USD 710 in 1990. The income share held by the lowest 20 percent has increased from 3.5 percent in 1990 to 6.1 percent in 2010.[48]

 
DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

The UNDP Gender Inequality Index gives Senegal a score of 0.521.[49] In 2016, the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report ranked Senegal 82 out of 144 countries.[50]

The law prohibits employment discrimination based on sex; however, according to the U.S. Department of State, gender-based discrimination is the most common form of employment discrimination. The law mandates equal pay for equal work.[51] However, this does not happen in practice. According to the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2016, the gender pay gap in Senegal is 29 percent for similar work. Forty-six percent of women are in the labor force compared to 72 percent of men.[52] Women are overrepresented in informal sector jobs: 90 percent of domestic workers are women and 85 percent of agricultural workers are women.[53] Women did hold 64 of the 150 seats in the Senegalese legislature because of a gender parity law.[54] However, the U.S. Department of State reports that the gender parity law has not been implemented in all regions and that women have not experienced an expansion of political authority in practice.[55]

Sexual harassment is prohibited by law, but the government has not enforced the law effectively and the problem remains widespread, according to the U.S. Department of State.[56] Domestic violence and rape, but not spousal rape, are prohibited by law as well. However, the government does not allow associations to bring suits on behalf of victims, there are no shield laws for rape, and police generally do not intervene in domestic disputes. A number of women’s groups, as well as the Committee to Combat Violence against Women and Children (CLVF), have reported a recent increase in violence against women in the country.[57]

Women and men are technically equal under Senegalese law; however, in practice traditional customs often take precedence. For example, women legally have the right to own land, but in rural areas it is difficult for women to purchase property without their husbands. Women also have the right to choose when they marry and to whom they marry. However, many communities that practice arranged marriages do not respect this law or the law that prohibits the marriage of girls under 16 years old. In addition, the country’s family code considers men to be heads of household, leaving women without legal parental rights. A woman can only become the legal head of household if her husband formally renounces this right in front of authorities.[58]

 
LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHRC) reports that there were no stateless persons or internally displaced persons (IDPs) in the country at the end of 2016.[59] However, according to the U.S. Department of State in 2016, the Senegalese government reports that there are 10,000 IDPs in the country and international humanitarian assistance agencies have stated that there could be as many as 24,000 IDPs. The IDPs, who are slowly returning to their villages, fled their homes during the Casamance conflict.[60] The Movement of Democratic Forces in the Casamance and the Senegalese government have been in conflict since the 1980s. An unofficial cease-fire has been in existence since 2012 and appears to be largely effective after several previous peace deals had failed.[61]

The government uses eminent domain arguments to acquire private land for public infrastructure projects. According to the U.S. Department of State, the government provides compensation to land owners and has recently developed a land tenure system designed to better facilitate this process.[62]

 
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Senegal experiences seasonal flooding in the lowlands and periodic droughts. The country also experiences desertification, soil erosion, deforestation, and overgrazing.[63]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Gold

GOLD OVERVIEW

Most of the country’s gold exists in the southeastern region of the country, and in the Kedougou region alone there is estimated to be 10 million ounces of gold reserves. Artisanal mining remains a key source of revenue for many local communities.[64]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN GOLD PRODUCTION

Migrant workers, child labor, hazardous working conditions, and long hours remain key issues in the artisanal sector.[65] In the Kedougou region of Senegal, villagers who cannot support their families through agriculture or have lost their land to logging have turned to gold mining as a necessity. They are joined by international migrants from the neighboring countries of Mali, Guinea, Gambia, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, and Nigeria.[66] The gold rush in Senegal is increasing demand for sex workers for miners who often believe that paying for sex will increase their chances of finding gold.[67] Reuters has reported that women from Nigeria are promised work in Europe and then are left in Kedougou, Senegal’s gold mining region.[68] They are stripped of their documents and often owe traffickers up to USD 4,900.[69]

Seafood

SEAFOOD OVERVIEW

While the fishing industry remains critically important to coastal communities, overfishing has drastically depleted fish stocks in recent years and some Senegalese fisher-people have resorted to traveling to waters off the coast of Guinea-Bissau to fill their quotas.[70] The problems caused by overfishing have been compounded by recent upticks in migration towards the coast as rural communities in Senegal have been hit hard by drought in recent years.[71]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN SEAFOOD PRODUCTION

Migrant and domestic workers, some of whom may be vulnerable to trafficking are present in the Senegalese fishing sector, particularly on foreign commercial fishing vessels. Trafficked Cambodian workers have also been documented on Taiwanese vessels off the coast of Senegal.[72] Senegalese workers were documented to be working alongside Chinese workers on a Chinese trawler off the coast of Senegal.[73]  

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[2] World Bank. Senegal: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/senegal/overview 

[3] World Bank. Senegal. 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/country/senegal

[4] World Bank. Senegal: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/senegal/overview 

[5] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[6] Trade Map. “List of products at 4 digits level exported by Senegal in 2016.” 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1|686||||TOTAL|||4|1|1|2|1|1|1|1|1

[7] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[8] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Mauritania. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper 

[9] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[10] World Bank. Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population). Senegal. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC?locations=SN

[11] World Bank. Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population): Senegal. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY?locations=SN 

[12] World Bank. Senegal: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/senegal/overview 

[13] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[14] World Bank. Senegal: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/senegal/overview 

[15] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2016: Senegal. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/SEN.pdf 

[16] World Bank. Net Migration: Senegal. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.NETM?locations=SN

[17] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[18] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR Statistics: The World in Numbers. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview 

[19] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm  

[20] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR Statistics: The World in Numbers. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview 

[21] U.S. Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm  

[22] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[23] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: By Destination and Origin. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml 

[24] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: By Destination and Origin. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml 

[25] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[26] International Trade Centre. Lit of importing markets for the product exported by Mauritania in 2016. 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=

[27] U.S. Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm 

[28] U.S. Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm 

[29] U.S. Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm 

[30] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm 

[31] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm 

[32] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. Senegal. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258851.htm.

[33] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm 

[34] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm 

[35] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Senegal. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/senegal 

[36] Amnesty International. Senegal 2016/2017. 2017.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/senegal/report-senegal/

[37] International Labour Organization (ILO). Ratifications for Senegal. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11200:0::NO::P11200_COUNTRY_ID:103013 

[38] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index 2017: Senegal. 2017. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/2017/05/14/fsi-2017-factionalization-and-group-grievance-fuel-rise-in-instability/ 

[39] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2015. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#reports 

[40] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[41] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security (OSAC). Senegal 2017 Crime & Safety Report. 2017. https://www.osac.gov/Pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21607

[42] World Economic Forum. Global Competitiveness Index: Senegal. 2016-2017. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-index/country-profiles/#economy=SEN 

[43] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Senegal. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/senegal 

[44] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index 2016: Senegal. 2016. https://www.transparency.org/country/SEN

[45] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm 

[46] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: International Human Development Indicators. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries 

[47] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: Senegal. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/SEN 

[48] World Bank. Country Profile: Senegal. 2015. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/Views/Reports/ReportWidgetCustom.aspx?Report_Name=CountryProfile&Id=b450fd57&tbar=y&dd=y&inf=n&zm=n&country=SEN 

[49] United Nations Development Programme. Senegal: Human Development Indicators. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/SEN

[50] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Senegal. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=SEN 

[51] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm

[52] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Senegal. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=SEN 

[53] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm

[54] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Senegal. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/senegal 

[55] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm

[56] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm

[57] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm

[58] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm

[59] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR Statistics: The World in Numbers. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview 

[60] U.S. Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Senegal. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265294.htm  

[61] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[62] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Senegal. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/#wrapper

[63] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Senegal. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/sg.html

[64] Amnesty International. Mining and Human Rights in Senegal: Closing the Gaps in Protection. 2014. https://www.amnesty.org/download/Documents/4000/afr490022014en.pdf

[65] International Organization for Migration (IOM). Global Eye on Human Trafficking, Issue 11. March, 2012. http://publications.iom.int/system/files/pdf/globaleyeissue11_29feb2012.pdf

[66] Thorsen, Dorte. Children Working in Mines and Quarries – Evidence from West and Central Africa. UNICEF. April 2012. http://www.unicef.org/wcaro/english/Briefing_paper_No_4_-_children_working_in_mines_and_quarries.pdf

[67] Guilbert, Kieran. “Sex for soil: Senegal’s gold rush fuels human trafficking from Nigeria.” Thomson Reuters Foundation News. March 30, 2017. http://news.trust.org/item/20170330110114-5j2sz

[68] Guilbert, Kieran. “Sex for soil: Senegal’s gold rush fuels human trafficking from Nigeria.” Thomson Reuters Foundation News. March 30, 2017. http://news.trust.org/item/20170330110114-5j2sz

[69] Guilbert, Kieran. “Sex for soil: Senegal’s gold rush fuels human trafficking from Nigeria.” Thomson Reuters Foundation News. March 30, 2017.   http://news.trust.org/item/20170330110114-5j2sz

[70] Shryock, Ricci. “Overfishing Leaves an Industry in Crisis in Senegal.” VOA News. June 7, 2017. https://www.voanews.com/a/overfishing-leaves-industry-crisis-senegal/3891172.html

[71] Jacobs, Andrew. “China’s Appetite Pushes Fisheries to the Brink.” New York Times. April 30, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/30/world/asia/chinas-appetite-pushes-fisheries-to-the-brink.html?mcubz=0

[72] Sui, Cindy. “Exploitation in Taiwan’s $2bn fishing industry.” BBC. June 10, 2014. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-asia-27498048

[73] Mallonee, Laura. “Inside China’s Almost-Totally-legal $400m Fishery in Africa.” Wired. March 23, 2017. https://www.wired.com/2017/03/yuyang-liu-drifting-west-africa/