Rwanda Country Overview

Politics

Rwanda is a presidential republic in central Africa and shares a border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda. In 2010, Paul Kagame was elected to his second seven-year term having won 93 percent of the vote.[1] In December 2015, a constitutional amendment was passed that would allow President Kagame to run for a third seven-year term.[2] While the amendment was passed with public support, it was reported that some of the 3.5 million people who had signed the proposal were coerced.[3]

Economy

Rwanda is classified by the World Bank as a low-income economy.[4] According to the World Bank, Rwanda has had notable developmental success over past decade, with high growth around seven percent annually, poverty reduction and reduced inequality.[5] Rwanda’s Vision2020 goal is to reach middle-income status by 2020 and the government aims to achieve this by private-sector led development. The GOR is looking to attract more foreign direct investment (FDI) through tourism, with plans of new high-energy infrastructure projects, including a new airport, an “Innovation City”, new tourist facilities, roads, railway links to Uganda and Tanzania and regional oil pipelines.[6] The main sectors of employment are agriculture (75.3 percent), services (18 percent) and industry (6.7 percent).[7] Despite Rwanda’s successes, some constraints to foreign direct investment (FDI) include its landlocked location, which results in higher transportation costs, a small domestic market, limited access to affordable financing, and a regularly inconsistent application of rules related to tax, investment and immigration.[8]

Social/Human Development

Rwanda’s genocide in 1994 was rooted in ethnic tensions that date to Belgian colonial rule, during which citizens were required to carry identity cards to distinguish their ethnic group, either Hutu, Tutsi, or Twa. Ethnic tensions came to a head in 1994, when militant Hutu factions attempted to wipe out the Tutsi population, resulting in state-orchestrated genocide that killed nearly three-quarters of the Tutsi population.[9] This event had a profound impact on the population of Rwanda, where between 750,000 and one million people lost their lives and 800,000 more became refugees or internally displaced persons. The demographic structure was so altered that presently, women make up 54 percent of the population.[10]

In 2013, UNHCR recommended that the refugee status held by Rwandans who fled the country between 1959 and 1998 be revoked, as the conditions that caused their migration are no longer present. However, many ethnically Hutu Rwandans remain scared to return home as they fear prosecution for alleged involvement in the genocide. As of 2017, Rwanda hosts 160,000 refugees from neighboring countries.[11] Rwanda is densely populated due to the combination of a small land mass, high population growth rate and influx of refugees from neighboring countries. Land scarcity is a source of strain for many rural families.[12]

According to the World Bank, Rwanda met most of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by the end of 2015. Among Rwanda’s achievements include improvements in the standard of living, evidenced by a two-third decrease in child mortality rates, near-universal primary school enrollment and a decrease in inequality measured by the Gini coefficient from 0.49 in 2011 to 0.45 in 2014.[13]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2 Watch List

The Trafficking in Persons Report did not note trafficking in any potentially exported supply chains, although high levels of vulnerability to trafficking were noted.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Experiencing relative peace since the 1994 genocide, Rwanda has become a destination country for refugees fleeing conflicts in other regions. As of August 2015, Rwanda accommodated nearly 146,000 refugees, mostly from DRC and Burundi.[14]

Exports and Trade

Rwanda’s top exports in 2016 include mineral fuels, gold, tea, coffee and ores.[15]

The top importers all goods from Rwanda, according to mirror data, include Thailand, China, Pakistan, the USA, and Malaysia.[16]

Rwanda was the 146th largest supplier of goods to the United States in 2015 and primarily exports coffee, ores, pectates, and wicker and basketware.[17]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

The law establishes that “every worker in every enterprise” except for certain senior public servants, police and soldiers, the right to form and join independent unions, conduct legal strikes and bargain collectively.[18] Under the law, informal workers are afforded the same right to join unions, conduct strikes and bargain collectively but are not included under other protections. The government broadly defines essential services, which includes public transportation, security, education, water and sanitation and telecommunications and many workers are therefore restricted in their right to strike.[19]

The U.S. Department of State has reported that the government does not respect the right to freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining, and the legal mechanisms in place to safeguard these rights are inadequate.[20]

Working Conditions

The National Labor Council passed a proposal to increase the current minimum wage from RWF 100 Rwandan Francs (USD 0.12) set in 1974 to an unspecified amount. The new minimum wage has not yet been agreed upon.[21] The Ministry of Public Service and Labor has established industry-specific minimum wages. In the tea industry it ranges from RWF 500 to RWF 1,000 (USD 0.61 to USD 1.23) per day, while in construction it ranges from RWF 1,500 to 5,000 RWF (USD 1.85 and USD 6.17) per day, commensurate with skill. While the minimum wage has been established for certain sectors, it is reportedly not widely enforced.[22]

The standard workweek is 45 hours with 18 to 21 days of paid annual leave, in addition to official holidays. Formal sector workers generally work six days per week but violations in overtime did reportedly occur in the formal and informal sectors.[23]

Workers do not have the explicit right to remove themselves from hazardous situations without jeopardizing their jobs, which may be problematic considering the government does not require on-the-job training, which may in turn lead to occupational hazard.[24] It has been reported that workers employed in the subcontractor and business process outsourcing sectors are particularly vulnerable to exploitative working conditions. Mining is another sector that is prone to workplace hazards as there are inconsistencies in implementing occupational safety and health standards.[25] Overall, it has been reported that labor inspectors do not enforce standards effectively and penalties are not sufficient to prevent violations.[26]

Discrimination

In 2000, the government revised the national labor code to eliminate gender discrimination. Therefore, the law prohibits discrimination with respect to race, ethnicity, national origin, gender, marital status, religion, political affiliation, pregnancy, disability, socio-economic status, and age.[27]

In practice, however, the government is limited in its capacity to enforce anti-discrimination laws, especially those related to gender, pregnancy, disability and political affiliation.[28]

Forced Labor

The government prohibits most forms of forced or compulsory labor and the government generally enforces the law and penalties are sufficient enough to deter violations.[29]

Child Labor

The law prohibits forced or compulsory labor by children. In 2009, the government strengthened prohibitions on the use of child labor. In Rwanda, the minimum age for full time employment is 16, and the law prohibits children who are under 18 from engaging in hazardous work.[30] For working children, the law establishes a period of at least 12 rest hours between work shifts.[31] In 2012, the government extended the time frame of compulsory education from nine to 12 years, beginning at age seven.[32] At the age of 16, when children are legally employable, 32 percent of girls and 29 percent of boys are out of school.[33] It is estimated that 16 percent of children in Rwanda are engaged in child labor, especially in the agriculture and domestic services.[34] Child labor has been reported to also exist in isolated instances in small companies and light manufacturing, in cross-border transportation, and in brick making, charcoal, rock crushing, and mining industries.

Laws protecting against forced child labor are only enforceable through contractual employment and therefore children employed outside of a contract are not protected despite the fact that most children are employed in this respect.[35]

Civil Society Organizations

There are some limitations on civil society organizations regarding free and transparent access to information. A 2013 law provides for the comprehensive access to information, but implementation has been weak, according to Freedom House. Several Rwanda nongovernmental organizations, working in tandem with the Office of the Ombudsman, launched an online web portal to process requests for government documents. However, out of the 75 requests that were made, only 10 were successful with the rest remaining unresolved.[36] Additionally, several civil society organizations have been banned in recent years, with organizations who do not focus on democracy or human rights more able to conduct activities without government interference.[37] Human Rights Watch reports that there are unwarranted bureaucratic obstacles in place for NGOs wishing to register in the country which prevents them from operating effectively.[38]

Immigration Policies Limiting the Employment Options or Movement of Migrants

While the law in Rwanda does not place restrictions on the movement of asylum seekers, refugees have reported that there were delays in the issuance of their identity cards and Convention Travel Documents (CTDs) which inhibited their ability to move within and outside of the country.[39] With regard to employment, no laws have restricted the employment of refugees and the Ministry of Disaster Management and Refugees Affairs, together with UNHCR, have launched a joint effort aimed at helping refugees gain employment in the local economy.[40] Despite these efforts, it has been reported that few refugees are able to find employment, with many citing their main obstacle to employment as a lack of a government-issued identity card.[41]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

[42]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Rwanda scores a 90.5 in the 2017 Fragile States Index, placing it in the “Alert” Category. Rwanda ranks 34th out of 178 countries on that same index.[43] Rwanda hosts refugees and asylum seekers from the Democratic Republic of Congo and Burundi, who score 7th and 17th out of 178 countries, respectively.[44]

 
LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2016-2017 ranked Rwanda 5 out of 138 and 6 out of 138 for business costs of crime and violence and organized crime, respectively.[45] According to the U.S. Department of State, Rwanda has low crime rates and a police and military force that provide security and reduce the risk of criminal activity and political conflict.[46] Rwanda’s strength in this respect has earned it one of the higher rankings in the World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Index, where it ranks 62 out of 189 countries for 2016.[47] However, according to the United Nations Office of Drugs and Crime, Rwanda had a homicide rate of 23.1 homicides per 100,000 people in 2012, higher than the African average.[48]

 
STATE PERSECUTION

The U.S. Department of State has reported that members of the unregistered FDU-Ikingi party have been denied issuance of or had their passports confiscated by authorities.[49]

 
LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

Rwanda reportedly has some of the lowest levels of corruption in Africa.[50] The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scores Rwanda at 54, ranking it 50 out of 176 countries on the index.[51] The government is proactive at combating instances of corruption, as it has shown a willingness to investigate corruption allegations and generally prosecutes those found guilty.[52] However, Freedom House reports that some independent media organizations and outlets do not report on corruption issues in Rwanda due to fear of government backlash.[53]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Rwanda scores in the low human development category, according to the UN Human Development Index, with a rank of 159 out of 188 countries and territories and a score of 0.498.[54] Rwanda’s HDI score is comparatively higher than its neighboring countries of Uganda, DRC and Burundi but remains lower than Tanzania, who scored a 0.531.[55]

 
LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

53.9 percent of the population are living in multidimensional poverty. When adjusted for inequality, the Human Development Index falls to 0.339, a loss of 31.9 percent due to inequality.[56]

 
DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

The United Nations Development Program Gender Inequality Index scores Rwanda low for gender equality, ranking it 159 out of 188 countries.[57] Despite its low ranking, in 2008, Rwanda became the first country in history to have more women in a national parliament than men.[58] The last parliamentary elections in 2013 saw 64 percent of the seats filled by women candidates.[59]

Women are afforded the same legal status and rights as men, including under family, labor, nationality, and inheritance laws. The law permits women to inherit land from their fathers or husbands. However, in practice, women face obstacles in obtaining property due to cultural bias against women, lack of knowledge regarding property claims, multiple spousal claims in the instance of polygyny and the threat of gender-based violence.[60] The law requires that women and men are paid equally and prohibits discrimination in hiring decisions.[61]

Women do not face formal legal restrictions when accessing credit but this right is limited in practice.[62] To combat the inequality that women face in accessing bank loans, the government has instituted micro-credit mechanisms to improve access to financial resources.[63]

With regard to education, attendance is higher among girls than boys, with 89 percent of girls compared to 87 percent of boys. For secondary education, 25 percent of girls and 21 percent of boys attend.[64]

 
LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

In March 2015, a new expropriation law was announced where the government reserves the right to expropriate property “in the public interest” and for “qualified public investment.”[65] It has been reported that land has been expropriated for establishment of roads, government buildings and other infrastructure projects without timely and adequate compensation.[66] Households reported delays in receiving compensation ranging from five to 42 months.[67]

The National Land Policy reports that customary laws are promoting the excessive distribution of land plots through the father-to-son inheritance system.[68] Although women can inherit land from their deceased husbands, girls are not permitted to inherit land from their fathers.[69]

 
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

In 2016, more than 100,000 families in the Eastern Province districts of Rwanda suffered famine due to drought which impacted crop yields.[70] While the government cited climate change for the difficulties that families are facing, analysts report that disappointing crop yields may be attributed to poor agricultural policies. Additionally, there is a regional disparity, with farmers occupying hilly terrain at a disadvantage as they are unable to irrigate their crops whereas those in marshlands have fared better.[71] 

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Coffee

COFFEE OVERVIEW

The majority of Rwandan coffee production occurs on smallholder farms, and there are an estimated 400,000 households that depend on the crop for their livelihoods. The average farm has approximately 450 trees.[72] The coffee industry in Rwanda has undergone drastic changes over the past decade, and key investments in coffee washing infrastructure to improve quality of the final product has been beneficial to many farmers who grow the plant.[73]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN COFFEE

A recent study found that coffee farmers, even smallholder coffee farmers, had high rates of hired labor, with an average of over 1.5 full time employees per hectare in Rwanda.[74] The study found that because smallholder coffee farmers earn low profit margins, they have little cash left to compensate hired workers.[75]

There is limited evidence of child labor in coffee production.[76]

Tea

TEA OVERVIEW

The tea industry employed roughly 60,000 people in the year 2013, and production is organized around 11 estates. There were around 27,000 smallholder farms producing tea in 2013, and these smallholders owned approximately 70 percent of tea producing land. Day laborers are often employed to pick tea leaves on these small farms.[77]

 
DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN TEA

According to the U.S. Department of Labor 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, tea is produced using child labor.[78] A study among child workers in the tea sector in Rwanda found that children are involved in the full range of tea production activities, including preparing land, pesticide application and leaf harvesting. They have also reported being involved in ancillary activities such as gathering firewood for factories. Among children in this study, child labor was found predominantly on smallholder farms.[79]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[2] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/rwanda

[3] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/rwanda

[4] World Bank. Rwanda. 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/country/rwanda

[5] World Bank. Rwanda: Overview. July 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/rwanda/overview

[6] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[7] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rw.html

[8] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[9] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[10] International Fund for Agricultural Development. Rural Poverty Portal: Rwanda. http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/rural-poverty-portal/country/home/tags/rwanda

[11] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rw.html

[12] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/rw.html

[13] World Bank. Rwanda: Overview. July 2017, http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/rwanda/overview

[14] International Organization for Migration. Rwanda. http://www.iom.int/countries/rwanda 

[15] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[16] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[17] Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Rwanda. https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/east-africa/rwanda

[18] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[19] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[20] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[21] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[22] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[23] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[24] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[25] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[26] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[27] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[28] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[29] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[30] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[31] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[32] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[33] Education and Policy Data Center. Out of School Children of the Population Ages 7-14: Rwanda. 2010. https://www.epdc.org/sites/default/files/documents/Rwanda_OOSC_Profile.pdf

[34] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[35] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[36] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/rwanda

[37] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/rwanda

[38] Human Rights Watch. World Report 2017: Rwanda. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2017/country-chapters/rwanda

[39] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[40] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[41] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[42] International Labour Organization (ILO). Ratifications for Mauritania. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11200:0::NO::P11200_COUNTRY_ID:103075 

[43] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index 2017: Rwanda. 2017. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/2017/05/14/fsi-2017-factionalization-and-group-grievance-fuel-rise-in-instability/ 

[44] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index 2017: Rwanda. 2017. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/2017/05/14/fsi-2017-factionalization-and-group-grievance-fuel-rise-in-instability/ 

[45] World Economic Forum. Global Competitiveness Index: Rwanda. 2016-2017. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-index/country-profiles/#economy=RWA

[46] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[47] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[48] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Global Homicide Study. 2014. https://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf

[49] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[50] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[51] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.transparency.org/country/RWA

[52] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[53] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/rwanda

[54] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: International Human Development Indicators. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries 

[55] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: International Human Development Indicators. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries 

[56] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: Rwanda. July 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/RWA

[57] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: Gender Inequality Index (GII). 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/en/indicators/137906# 

[58] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Rwanda. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/rwanda

[59] World Bank. Rwanda: Overview. July 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/rwanda/overview

[60] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[61] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[62] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Rwanda. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/rwanda

[63] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Rwanda. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/rwanda

[64] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Rwanda. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/rwanda

[65] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[66] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Rwanda. July 2017. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265502.pdf.

[67] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Rwanda. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[68] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rwanda. http://www.fao.org/gender-landrights-database/country-profiles/countries-list/general-introduction/en/?country_iso3=RWA

[69] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Rwanda. http://www.fao.org/gender-landrights-database/country-profiles/countries-list/general-introduction/en/?country_iso3=RWA

[70] Gahigi, M. “2016: Year of drought, famine in Rwanda.” 2017. The East African. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/rwanda/News/2016-Year-of-drought-and-famine-in-Rwanda/1433218-3504346-5j0hsrz/index.html

[71] Gahigi, M. “2016: Year of drought, famine in Rwanda.” 2017. The East African. http://www.theeastafrican.co.ke/rwanda/News/2016-Year-of-drought-and-famine-in-Rwanda/1433218-3504346-5j0hsrz/index.html

[72] Doucleffe, Michaeleen. “Rwandan Coffee Farmers Turn Premium Beans into Harvest Gold.” NPR News. August 16, 2012. http://www.npr.org/sections/thesalt/2012/08/16/158940463/rwandan-coffee-farmers-turn-premium-beans-into-harvest-gold

[73] World Economic Forum. Rwanda Case Study. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/Manufacturing_Our_Future_2016/Case_Study_14.pdf

[74] Fair Trade International. “Assessing coffee farmer household Income.” 2017.  http://fairtradeamerica.org/~/media/Fairtrade%20America/Files/Reports/1706_ExecSummary-AssessingCoffeeFarmerIncome_final.pdf

[75] Fair Trade International. “Assessing coffee farmer household Income.” 2017.  http://fairtradeamerica.org/~/media/Fairtrade%20America/Files/Reports/1706_ExecSummary-AssessingCoffeeFarmerIncome_final.pdf

[76] U.S. Department of Labor. Worst Forms of Child Labor. Rwanda. 2016. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/resources/reports/child-labor/rwanda

[77] World Bank. Impact Evaluation of Tea Sector Reforms in Rwanda Methodology Note. http://pubdocs.worldbank.org/en/115031473702508443/COMPEL-Rwanda-methodologynote.pdf

[78] U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB). 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. 2016. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/list-of-goods/

[79] O’Dowd, Vinnie, and Danny Vincent. “Catholic Church linked to Uganda child labour.” BBC News. January 5, 2016. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-35220869.