Nigeria Country Overview

Politics

Nigeria is a federal presidential republic country that is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence in 1960.[1] The national elections in 2015 that resulted in the election of President Muhammadu Buhari were the first peaceful transfer of power from one party to its opposition.[2] The U.S. Department of State reports that the insurgency in the northeast by Boko Haram has continued, as the group remained in control of rural areas and carried out attacks and suicide bombings.[3]

Economy

The World Bank classifies Nigeria as a lower middle income economy. Nigeria was the world’s twentieth largest economy in 2015.[4] There is a split between the labor force and the primary drivers of economic growth; 80 percent of rural households are engaged in agriculture for their livelihoods while the national economy relies on the oil and gas sector, which accounts for 90 percent of export earnings.[5]

In the wake of falling oil prices in mid-2014, economic growth has slowed significantly: the economy grew by 2.7 percent in 2015, which was significantly lower than its growth in 2014 of 6.3 percent. The World Bank reports that the economy’s slowed growth has spurred economic diversification and growth of the private sector.[6]

 

Social/Human Development

Nigeria is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups, the most populous being the Hausa and the Fulani (29 percent), Yoruba (21 percent), Igbo (18 percent), Ijaw (10 percent), Kanuri (4 percent), Ibibio (3.5 percent) and Tiv (2.5 percent). The population is approximately 50 percent Muslim, 40 percent Christian, and 10 percent those who hold indigenous beliefs.[7] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that there were over 2 million internally displaced persons within Nigeria at the end of 2015, and approximately 1.9 million in June 2017.[8] 

The ongoing humanitarian crisis in the northeast regions of the country, driven by conflict with Boko Haram, has caused widespread displacement, leaving large swaths of the population in that region without adequate access to food or medical care.

The World Bank reports that 46 percent of the population were living below the national poverty line in 2009.[9]

 

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2 Watch List

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking risk may be found among Nigerian boys in export supply chains including mining, stone quarrying, textile manufacturing and agriculture. Children from neighboring West African countries are vulnerable to trafficking in the granite and gold mining sectors.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Nigeria has positive net migration. Around 0.66 percent of the total resident population of Nigeria were reportedly immigrants in 2015. In 2015, the outward migration from Nigeria was 1,089,424 persons while the inward migration to Nigeria was 1,199,115 persons. The largest source countries for migrants to Nigeria are Benin, Ghana, Mali, Togo, and Niger.[10] There were over 2.17 million persons of concern in Nigeria at the end of 2015. Approximately 99.9 percent of the persons of concern are internally displaced persons. The other 0.1 percent are comprised of refugees and asylum-seekers.[11]

 

The top destination countries for migrants from Nigeria are the United States and the United Kingdom; other destination countries include Cameroon, Ghana, Italy, and Benin.[12]

Exports and Trade

The top exports from Nigeria in 2016 include mineral fuels, oils, and the products of their distillation. These exports are predominantly comprised of crude petroleum oils and petroleum gases, though non-crude petroleum oils and electrical energy are also exported. Other top exported products include cocoa, oil seeds, wood, hides, ores (primarily columbite and tantalite), and aluminum articles.[13]

The top importers of all goods from Nigeria in 2015 according to mirror data include India, the United States of America, Spain, France, and the Netherlands.[14]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

The U.S. Department of State reports that the law provides all workers except members of the armed forces and those in essential services the right to belong to unions, though there are statutory limitations on these rights. The law does not provide for the union’s ability to conduct its activities without interference from the government and limits the right to strike through legal restrictions, with strikes over national economic policy prohibited. Collective bargaining occurs throughout the public and organized private sectors, but is restricted in some parts of the private sector. The U.S. Department of State reports that some foreign employers have failed to comply with labor laws, especially in the construction and textile sectors.[15]

Working Conditions

The national monthly minimum wage was NGN 18,000, though employers with less than 50 employees are exempt from this minimum. The law establishes a 40-hour workweek, two to four weeks of annual leave, overtime and holiday pay, and general health and safety provisions, some of which are specific to young or female workers. The U.S. Department of State has reported that workers can remove themselves from situations that endanger their health without jeopardy to their employment under the law, but the government does not protect employees effectively in these situations.[16]

Discrimination

The U.S. Department of State has reported that the law does not prohibit discrimination in employment based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, gender, disability, language, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, HIV-positive status, or social status, and fails to address effectively discrimination in employment or occupation.[17] Gender-based discrimination in employment has been reported.[18]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits forced labor, but the U.S. Department of State has reported that resources, inspections, remediation, and penalties are inadequate.[19]

Child Labor

The general minimum age for employment in Nigeria is 12 years, though persons under age 14 must be employed only on a daily basis, receive wages at the end of each workday, and must return to their parent or guardian’s residence at the end of the day. These regulations do not apply to domestic service however. Children under 16 cannot work underground, and the minimum age for industrial work and work on vessels where a family member is not employed is 15 years. Children above age 12 are allowed to apprentice in skilled trades or as domestic servants. The U.S. Department of State has reported that the government does not adequately enforce the law, and children remain vulnerable.[20] Education is compulsory through age 15.[21]

Civil Society Organizations

Civil society organizations report no legal restrictions on their ability to observe parts of the electoral process.[22] Human Rights Watch reports that Nigeria has strong civil society organizations that play a robust role in lobbying for openness and accountability in public office.[23]

Immigration Policies Limiting the Employment Options or Movement of Migrants

Refugees are able to move and work freely within the country, but have few opportunities for employment. Their opportunities for employment are no more limited than those of regular citizens.[24]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

 [25]

Use of Export Processing Zones (EPZs)

Nigeria has 34 export processing zones and an established government agency responsible for the facilitation of investment into these zones.[26] According to the U.S. Department of State, workers and employers in EPZs are subject to the provisions of labor law, the 1992 Nigeria Export Processing Zones Decree, and other laws. Workers in the EPZs may organize and engage in collective bargaining; however, the law prohibits workers from carrying out a strike for 10 years following the commencement of operations by the employer within a zone.[27]

Promotion of Emigration/Remittance Economy

The World Bank reported that an estimated 4.4 percent of the GDP of Nigeria came from personal remittances in 2015.[28]

 

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Nigeria scored 103.5 on the Fragile States Index in 2016 and was placed in the “High Alert” category as the thirteenth most fragile state. This score went up 1.1 points from the score in 2015.[29] The Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC), a division of the U.S. Department of State, has reported that suicide attacks by Boko Haram occur on a semi-regular basis around population and commercial centers in the Borno state.[30] According to the U.S. Department of State, civilian authorities do not always maintain control over the security services, and the insurgency by the militant terrorist group Boko Haram continues in the northeast part of the country. The casualty figures increased as Boko Haram have carried out complex attacks and suicide bombing. The U.S. Department of State has reported that the constitution and the law provide for freedom of speech and of the press, but the government restricts these rights often.[31] The Worldwide Governance Indicators, as run by the World Bank, scores Nigeria at -2.07 on the “Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism” indicator. This indicator is scored from -2.5 to +2.5 measures governance (stability of governance increasing as the number increases).[32]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

According to the Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC), crime is a serious risk throughout the country, and criminals tend to use violence and deadly force when met with resistance. The security crisis with Boko Haram in the north raises the risk of kidnappings, robberies and other armed attacks. Police reportedly lack basic resources to respond to criminal incidents and conduct effective investigations. Nigerians reportedly do not report crimes to the police out of concern that they will face extortion.[33]

The rate of pirate attacks and kidnappings in the Gulf of Guinea has reportedly increased in recent years. Armed gangs have been reported to board vessels to kidnap passengers and crew and steal boats to conduct piracy operations.[34]

STATE PERSECUTION

The U.S. Department of State has reported that while the law prohibits ethnic discrimination by the government, many ethnic group members claim to be marginalized in terms of government revenue allocation, political representation, or both. Although all citizens have the right to live in any part of the country, state and local governments are reported to discriminate against members of ethnic groups that are not indigenous to their areas, sometimes compelling them to move by threats, discrimination in employment, or destruction of homes. Members of all ethnic groups are connected to reports of discrimination in hiring within the private sector.[35]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scores Nigeria as 28 out of 100, where 0 signals “Highly Corrupt and 100 signals “Very Clean.” Nigeria ranks 136 out of 176 countries on the index and the score is up three points from the score in 2015.[36] The World Bank Worldwide Governance Indicators rank Nigeria 11 out of 100 on the “Control of Corruption” sale, where a 0 is the lowest rank and 100 is the highest.[37] The U.S. Department of State has reported that the government does not effectively implement anti-corruption law, which provides criminal penalties for official corruption, and officials frequently engage in corrupt practices with impunity.[38] Pervasive corruption has been noted as “a serious obstacle to economic growth and poverty reduction.”[39]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

The UN Human Development Index places Nigeria in the low human development category, ranking it 152 out of 199 countries with a score of 0.527 in 2015. Nigeria ranks higher than all of its neighbors, though Benin and Cameroon have similar levels of human development.[40] The World Bank classifies Nigeria in the lower middle income level and reports that the GDP fell from USD 546.7 billion in 2014 to USD 486.7 billion in 2015.[41]

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

The percentage of the population living below the national poverty line was 46 percent in 2009 according to the World Bank.[42] The inequality-adjusted Human Development Index value for Nigeria was 0.328 in 2015.[43] According to the UNDP Human Development Report’s Multidimensional Poverty Index, 50.9 percent of the population was living in multidimensional poverty as of 2013. On that index, Nigeria has a value of 0.279.[44]

 
DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

The Social Institutions and Gender Index reports that while Nigeria has a National Gender Policy that focuses on female empowerment while prioritizing the elimination of discriminatory practices against women, significant gender gaps in education, economic empowerment, and political participation remain in Nigeria.[45] Patterns of inheritance have many variations reflecting the plural legal system within the country that has developed because of the numerous ethnic groups. In civil marriages when the husband leaves a will, widows are guaranteed the right to inherit at least one-third of the property.[46] However, customary law dictates inheritance rights in cases where the husband has no will. In northern Muslim communities, discriminatory practices concerning widows occur.[47]

Although civil law entitles women to have access to land, certain customary laws stipulate that only men can inherit and own land. Under civil and Islamic law, married women have the right to non-land assets, but women have limited financial resources and some institutions demand prior consent of the woman’s husband before granting a loan.[48]

The U.S. Department of State has noted that gender-based discrimination occurs in employment, reflecting gender inequities in traditional and religious practices.[49]

Approximately 48.4 percent of the female population is involved in the work force compared to 64.0 percent of the male population.[50]

 
LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

The U.S. Department of State reported in 2016 that there were hundreds of thousands of internally-displaced persons in Nigeria, many of whom were in urgent need of food assistance. The main reasons for displacement included insurgency by Boko Haram and communal clashes between ethnic groups.[51] The U.S. Department of State has cited reports that “that children in internally displaced persons (IDP) camps in northeast Nigeria were victims of labor and sex trafficking.”[52]

The U.S. Department of State notes that clarity of land ownership has remained a significant challenge throughout rural Nigeria, where smallholder farmers only have traditional use claims to their land.[53] The Land Use Act guarantees all Nigerians the right to land, and land in each state is vested in the individual governors who have the power to acquire land deemed to be in the overriding public interest.[54]

 
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Nigeria is facing rapid deforestation, desertification, and serious damage from recurring oil spills. Oil pollution is also found in the soil, air, and water, and there is a loss of arable land accompanied by rapid urbanization.[55]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Cocoa

COCOA OVERVIEW

Nigeria is the fourth largest exporter of cocoa in the world, and the crop is the country’s largest agricultural export. However, in recent years cocoa production has been declining steadily in the country due largely to low yields, inconsistent production, disease, and low mechanization. Cocoa is currently cultivated in fourteen Nigerian states, with the majority of production occurring in the southeast and southwest. There are approximately 30,000 farmers currently growing cocoa in Nigeria and the majority of cocoa production in the country is still carried out on small-scale farms. An estimated 57 percent of cocoa farming households are “food insecure.”[56]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN COCOA

According to the U.S. Department of Labor List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, cocoa is produced with child and forced labor in Nigeria.[57] There is little up-to-date information on the nature of child labor and trafficking risk in Nigerian cocoa production. There is limited information that children may be recruited by intermediaries for work on cocoa farms and subject to non-payment of wages.[58]

Oil and Gas

OIL AND GAS OVERVIEW

The southeastern region of Nigeria is home to sub-Saharan Africa’s largest reserves of crude oil. These reserves are primarily located in and around the Niger Delta, a sprawling network of wetlands and low-lying agricultural areas home to millions of people who depend on the land for their livelihood. Nigeria currently produces approximately 1.73 million barrels of oil a day, down from around 2 million this time last year.[59]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN OIL AND GAS

The oil and gas industry in Nigeria is a source of friction for many living in the Niger delta region of the country; especially relating to the prevalence of oil-related pollution in the region.[60] These tensions have fueled rural to urban migration, conflict, and illegal oil production.[61] [62]

Gold

GOLD OVERVIEW

Gold in Nigeria is mined primarily by artisanal miners, and the country produced 4,000 kilograms of gold in 2012.[63] Gold production in Nigeria peaked in the first half of the twentieth century, before commercial gold mines were abandoned.[64] Gold deposits are found primarily in the northwest and southwest.[65]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN GOLD MINING

Lead is found in gold deposits in some regions of Nigeria, leading to significant levels of lead poisoning among some artisanal miners.[66] This is particularly hazardous for children involved in mining operations.[67] Even children who do not participate in mining can be poisoned by lead in the soil and water around mines.[68] In 2010, lead poisoning associated with gold mining in Nigeria was the largest incident of mass lead poisoning in history. Lead poisoning can cause neurological, kidney, bone, and developmental problems. In some cases, the lead poisoning was so severe it caused death.[69]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). World Factbook: Nigeria. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

[2] World Bank. Nigeria -Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/nigeria/overview

[3] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[4] World Bank. Country Data: Nigeria. 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/country/nigeria

[5] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Report: Nigeria. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[6] World Bank. Country Overview, Nigeria. 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/nigeria/overview

[7] Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). World Factbook: Nigeria. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

[8] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. UNHCR Statistics. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview

United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs. Nigeria: About the Crisis. http://www.unocha.org/nigeria/about-ocha-nigeria/about-crisis

[9] World Bank. Country Data, Nigeria. 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/country/nigeria

[10] International Organization for Migration (IOM). Global Migration Flows. 2016. https://www.iom.int/world-migration

[11] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. UNHCR Statistics. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview

[12] International Organization for Migration (IOM). Global Migration Flows. 2016. https://www.iom.int/world-migration

[13] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[14] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[15] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[16] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[17] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[18] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[19] U.S. Department of State. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. Trafficking in Persons Report: Nigeria. 2016 https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258834.htm

[20] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[21] Right to Education project. National law and policies on minimum ages – Nigeria. 2004. http://r2e.gn.apc.org/country-node/382/country-minimum

[22] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[23] Human Rights Watch (HRW). Nigeria: Events of 2016. 2017. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2017/country-chapters/nigeria

[24] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[25] 

[26] Nigeria Export Processing Zones Authority. About us. 2017. http://www.nepza.gov.ng

[27] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[28] World Bank. Data: Personal remittances, received. 2015. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/BX.TRF.PWKR.DT.GD.ZS?locations=SD&page=4

[29] Fund for Peace. Country Data and Trends. 2016. http://fsi.fundforpeace.org/2016-nigeria

[30] U.S. Department of State. Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC). Nigeria 2017 Crime and Safety Report. 2017. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21719

[31] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[32] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2017. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.aspx#reports

[33] U.S. Department of State. Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC). Nigeria 2017 Crime and Safety Report. 2017. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21719

[34] U.S. Department of State. Overseas Security Advisory Council (OSAC). Nigeria 2017 Crime and Safety Report. 2017. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21719

[35] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[36] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index, 2016. 2016. http://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016

[37] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2015. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/index.aspx#reports

[38] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[39] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Report: Nigeria. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[40] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Reports. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/HDI

[41] World Bank. Country Data, Nigeria. 2015. http://data.worldbank.org/country/nigeria

[42] World Bank. Country Data, Nigeria. 2009. http://data.worldbank.org/country/nigeria

[43] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index. 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/IHDI

[44] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Index, Multidimensional Poverty Index. 2012. http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/MPI

[45] Social Institutions and Gender Index. Nigeria. 2014. http://www.genderindex.org/country/nigeria

[46] Social Institutions and Gender Index. Nigeria. 2014. http://www.genderindex.org/country/nigeria

[47] Social Institutions and Gender Index. Nigeria. 2014. http://www.genderindex.org/country/nigeria

[48] Social Institutions and Gender Index. Nigeria. 2014. http://www.genderindex.org/country/nigeria

[49] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Nigeria. http://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=265288

[50] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Index, Gender Inequality Index. 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/en/composite/GII

[51] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Report: Nigeria. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[52] U.S. Department of State. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. Trafficking in Persons Report: Nigeria. 2016 https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258834.htm

[53] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Report: Nigeria. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[54] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Gender and Land Rights Database. 2015. http://www.fao.org/gender-landrights-database/country-profiles/countries-list/general-introduction/en/?country_iso3=NGA

[55] Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). World Factbook: Nigeria. 2016. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ni.html

[56] Cadoni P. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). Analysis of incentives and disincentives for cocoa in Nigeria. February 2013. http://www.fao.org/3/a-at586e.pdf

[57] U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs. 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor of Forced Labor. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/list-of-goods/

[58] International Institute of Tropical Agriculture. Labor practices in the cocoa sector of southwest Nigeria with a focus on the role of children. 2002. http://www.iita.org/c/document_library/get_file?p_l_id=98898&folderId=104025&name=DLFE-1141.pdf

[59] YCharts. Nigeria Crude Oil Production. 2017. https://ycharts.com/indicators/nigeria_crude_oil_production

[60] Amnesty International. Niger Delta: Shell’s manifestly false claims about oil pollution exposed, again. November 3, 2015. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/11/shell-false-claims-about-oil-pollution-exposed/

[61] Amnesty International. The price of oil: impact of oil pollution on Niger Delta communities. November 3, 2015. https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2015/11/human-face-oil-pollution-niger-delta/

[62] Olaniyi, Bisi. “Exposing illegal bunkering, oil theft in the Niger Delta.” The Nation Nigeria. October 17, 2014. http://thenationonlineng.net/exposing-illegal-bunkering-oil-theft-in-the-niger-delta/

[63] US Geological Survey (USGS). Nigeria Minerals. 2012.  https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2012/myb3-2012-ni.pdf

US Geological Survey (USGS). Nigeria Minerals. 2013. https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2013/myb3-2013-ni.pdf

[64] Nigeria Business Forum Switzerland. Gold Deposits: Exploration opportunities in Nigeria. http://www.nbf-swiss.org/NBF/NBF/NBF/www.nbf-swiss.org/nbf-swiss/pdf/GOLD_deposits%5B.pdf

[65] Nigeria Business Forum Switzerland. Gold Deposits: Exploration opportunities in Nigeria. http://www.nbf-swiss.org/NBF/NBF/NBF/www.nbf-swiss.org/nbf-swiss/pdf/GOLD_deposits%5B.pdf

[66] Human Rights Watch (HRW). A Heavy Price: Lead Poisoning and Gold Mining in Nigeria’s Zamfara State. 2011. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/Nigeria_0212.pdf

[67] Human Rights Watch (HRW). A Heavy Price: Lead Poisoning and Gold Mining in Nigeria’s Zamfara State. 2011. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/Nigeria_0212.pdf

[68] Human Rights Watch (HRW). A Heavy Price: Lead Poisoning and Gold Mining in Nigeria’s Zamfara State. 2011. https://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/related_material/Nigeria_0212.pdf

[69] Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lead Poisoning Investigation in Northern Nigeria. October 2016. https://www.cdc.gov/onehealth/in-action/lead-poisoning.html