Namibia Country Overview

Politics

Namibia is a constitutional multi-party democracy in Southern Africa. Although it is a multi-party democracy, its ruling party has gained and retained control over a large majority of parliament, regional council seats, and local authorities. The ruling party is the Southwest Africa People’s Organization, known as SWAPO. Recent elections in 2014 and 2015 contributed to SWAPO’s large majority among elected positions, and were characterized by international observers as generally free and fair.[1] These elections reflect the World Bank’s description of Namibia as politically stable.[2]

 

Economy

Namibia is classified by the World Bank as an upper middle income economy, with a GDP per capita of USD 4,673.[3] Between 2011 and 2015, the economy grew at an average of 5.6 percent per annum,[4] but it slowed to 1.2 percent in 2016. The slowdown has been tied to low prices for minerals and a regional drought, among other factors, and reflect World Bank observations that the country’s economy is vulnerable to external shocks and environmental issues.[5]

Despite Namibia’s small domestic market, high transport costs, high energy prices and limited access to skilled labor, the World Bank reports that Namibia remains attractive for foreign direct investment (FDI) due to its political stability and favorable macroeconomic environment. FDI is mainly in the uranium, diamond, zinc and copper mining, banking, oil exploration and fisheries sectors.[6] Major exports to the United States include uranium ore and diamonds.[7]

 

Social/Human Development

Namibia is in the medium human development category, having undergone an increase in Human Development Index value from 0.550 to 0.624 between 1980 and 2013.[8] The U.S. Department of State reports that the human rights abuses of Namibia include discrimination against ethnic minorities and indigenous people, as well as women and children. Remnants of apartheid, which began in 1964 under South African rule, have continued to contribute to social and economic imbalances, and reportedly hinder job creation and poverty reduction efforts. Namibia has one of the highest incidences of HIV/AIDs in the region which further exacerbates poverty and vulnerability among the rural population.[9]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2

The U.S. Department of State reports that trafficking and trafficking vulnerability exists in potentially exported supply chains including commercial farms, agriculture, foreign fishing vessels, livestock herding, and construction.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Namibia has net negative migration rate. Approximately 3.8 percent of the country’s population are migrants. The largest source countries for migrants traveling to Namibia are Angola, Zimbabwe, Germany, South Africa, and Democratic Republic of the Congo.[10]  There are 4,576 total persons of concern, according to the UN.[11]

Exports and Trade

Namibia’s top exports in 2016 include diamonds, copper, fish, chemicals, and zinc.[12] Gold, ships, animals and meat, beverages, and ships are also key exports.[13]

Namibia primarily exports ores, diamonds, and fish to the United States and was the 109th largest supplier of goods to the U.S. in the last year for which data was available.[14]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

According to the International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), although the law in Namibia prohibits anti-union discrimination, there are no adequate means of protection against it.[15] Additionally, there are no legal provisions providing for the right of trade unions or federations of trade unions to establish or join confederations.[16]

Working Conditions

In Namibia, there is no generally applicable minimum wage law but in 2015 the government established a minimum wage for domestic workers.[17] Other sectors set their basic levels of pay through collective bargaining, which include: mining, construction, security and agricultural sectors.[18]

It has been reported that Chinese firms fail to adhere to the labor code regarding hiring and firing and also fail to pay sector-wide established minimum wages and benefits in certain industries, do not respect workhour regulations for public holidays and Sundays, and do not adhere to occupational health and safety standards.[19] For example, Chinese firms often require construction workers to sleep on site.[20]

The legal workweek is 45 hours, with at least 36 consecutive hours of rest between workweeks, as well as equal pay for equal work. By law, workers have the right to remove themselves from dangerous work situations and this right is effectively protected.[21]

The Ministry of Labor, Industrial Relations, and Employment Creation mandates occupational safety and health standards, and the law empowers authorities to enforce these standards through inspections and criminal penalties. The law covers all employers and employees in the country, including those employed through a private employment agency and requires that employers to provide for the health, safety and welfare of their employees.[22]

Discrimination

According to the U.S. Department of State, the Government of Namibia prohibits discrimination in employment and occupation based on race, sex, religion, political opinion, national origin or citizenship, pregnancy, family responsibility, disability, age, language, social status, HIV-positive status, and the government generally upholds the law. However, gender discrimination in employment and occupation occurs most frequently in the mining and construction industries, where men occupy two-thirds of upper management positions in both private and public sectors.[23]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor however penalties were reportedly insufficient to deter violations.[24]

Child Labor

In Namibia, primary school is free and compulsory from age six through the end of primary school or the age of 16, whichever comes first.[25] Forced labor by children is prohibited by law. While the minimum age for employment is 14, there are higher age requirements for more strenuous activities like night work or in sectors like mining and construction.[26] Despite the government’s inadequate resources to report formal allegations of forced labor, allegations made in relation to child labor are investigated.[27] Children in rural areas have been found to be working on communal farms owned by families herding cattle, goats and sheep or working as domestic servants or in family businesses.[28]

Civil Society Organizations

Domestic and international human rights groups report being able to operate in Namibia without government restriction and with cooperation with government officials.[29]

Immigration Policies Limiting the Employment Options or Movement of Migrants

According to the U.S. Department of State, refugees’ ability to work is subject to the government’s restrictive measures, which requires refugees wishing to work outside of the Osire Camp to seek government permission and work permits.[30]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

[31]

Use of Export Processing Zones (EPZs)

The U.S. Department of State reports that the law provides for the protection of all workers, including those in export processing zones.[32] However, according to a report by the Labor Resource and Research Institute (LaRRI) in Namibia, some EPZ companies do not recognize trade unions and refuse to grant them access and that there is a complete absence of collective bargaining as outlined in the Namibian Labor Act.[33] By the end of 2013, there were some 20 EPZ companies in operation, mostly involved with mineral resources, such as: Namzinc, Namibia Custom Smelters and a variety of diamond cutting and polishing operations.[34]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Namibia scores a 71.1 in the 2016 Fragile States Index, placing it in the “Elevated Warning” Category, although the U.S. Department of State Investment Climate Report notes that it is overall a stable country.[35] Major labor supply countries Angola and Zimbabwe scored with higher risk, at 90.5 and 100.5 respectively.[36]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report ranks Namibia at 90 out of 138 and 60 out of 138 for business costs of violence and crime and organized crime, respectively.[37] The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reported a homicide rate of 17.2 homicides per 100,000 people in 2012, higher than the average for Africa.[38]

STATE PERSECUTION

Members of the San ethnic group are reportedly unable to exercise their rights due to minimal access to education, economic opportunities, overall isolation and lack of government identification. Without proper identification, the San are not able to access government social programs or vote.[39] The U.S. Department of State notes that the San may be at increased risk for trafficking within Namibia.[40]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

According to the U.S. Department of State Human Rights Report, although the law provides for penalties for corruption by officials, officials engage in corrupt activities with impunity.[41] The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index ranks Namibia 53 out of 176 countries, with a score of 52 out of 100, where a score of zero is “Highly Corrupt”.[42] Angola is the most prominent country of labor supply, and scores an 18 on the TI Corruption Perception Index; this relatively high score may be an indicator of why Namibia is a destination country for tens of thousands of Angolans.[43]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Namibia has a higher Human Development Index (HID) score than labor sending countries Angola and Zimbabwe, however it remains significantly lower than neighboring South Africa.[44] [45] When Namibia’s HDI is adjusted for inequality, the score drops over 35 percent, suggesting a high rate of inequality within the country.[46]

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

According to the United Nations Development Program (UNDP), the most recent survey data available for Namibia’s multidimensional poverty index (MPI) finds that 44.9 percent of Namibians are multidimensionally poor while an additional 19.3 percent live near multidimensional poverty.[47] Poverty is concentrated in the northern regions due to a fence that extends from the east to the west in order to block the southerly movements of livestock diseases.[48] This fence thus separates the northern, poorer subsistence farmers from the southern, wealthier commercial farmers.[49]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

Namibia has a Gender Inequality Index (GII) value of 0.474, ranking it 108 out of 159 countries in the 2015 Index.[50] The Namibian Government prohibits gender-based discrimination, including employment discrimination, yet women still experience discrimination in areas such as access to credit, salary level, owning and managing businesses, education and housing.[51]

There are no formal legal barriers to women’s access to land but non-land assets are dependent on the type of marriage. For example, women married under the community of property regime have equal rights, such as they both must equally agree to sell their property. However, women may experience discrimination in accessing property in customary marriages where such provisions are not provided.[52] Moreover, one other difference in civil and customary marriage is that there is a minimum age of marriage under civil law but not customary.[53] About 70 percent of the population lives in rural areas where customary law is most prevalent.[54]

LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

According to the U.S. Department of State, the indigenous lands of Namibia are demarcated to the respective ethnic groups but poorly managed.[55] The San people live on conservancy lands but are not capable of preventing surrounding, larger ethnic groups from exploiting their land, and the government has been reportedly complicit in the matter.[56]

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Namibia’s climate is prone to extreme temperatures as it is an arid, semi-desert, yet is susceptible to flooding in the rainy season which can limit accessibility in central and northern regions.[57]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Fish

FISH OVERVIEW

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization’s Fisheries and Aquaculture Information and Statistics Branch, the Namibian fisheries industry captured around 486,208 metric tons of fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic invertebrates in 2013.[58] An important part of the country’s economy, the fisheries sector is responsible for approximately 3.9 percent of Namibia’s GDP and in 2013 employed 13,380 Namibians. Although a vast majority of this employment and economic output is generated by marine industrial fisheries,[59] Namibia hopes to grow its aquaculture industries through publicly supported research and development and private venture capital funding.[60]

Namibia currently has two ports, one located at Walvis Bay near the center of Namibian coastline and the other at Lüderitz in the south; however, the government is considering the feasibility of constructing a third port in northern Namibia.[61] Due to strong enforcement measures Namibia has maintained relatively low levels of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing when compared to other sub-Saharan African countries, including South Africa.[62]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN FISHING

In 2013, there was widespread media coverage of a Chinese-owned commercial vessel, MV Leader, which exploited Namibian, Indonesian, and Chinese workers.[63] Media articles noted that workers on MV Leader had been recruited via “labour hire.”[64] 

In general, reports have noted that while fishing is one of the most important employment areas in Namibia and workers appear to be relatively well-organized, there is some concern over wage payments that are highly seasonally variable and can lead to indebted workers, although this does not appear to rise to the level of trafficking.[65]

Sex trafficking has been reported in the fishing areas of Windhoek and Walvis Bay. As a result of both commercial sex work, as well the highly mobile populations, including migrant populations living in and around Namibia’s ports, rates of HIV transmission are reportedly high.[66]

Case Study: Trafficking Risk Tied to the Fishing Sector in Namibia

With oversight from project partner Solidarity Center, the African Labour Researcher’s Network (ALRN) carried out rapid appraisal field research in Namibia. The rapid appraisal research sought qualitative information on potential risks of human trafficking in a specific supply chains from a variety of expert informants including workers, government officials, organized labor representatives, employers and civil society groups. Expert informant information was used to triangulate information gathered during desk research. The Namibia case study is summarized below and has informed framing of issues throughout this report.

Namibian regulation of illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing is often cited as a regional success story. Multiple layers of regulation aim to support monitoring of fishing vessels, limit overfishing and support the “Namibianisation” of the sector. “Namibianisation” refers to legislation that states that fishing rights can only be granted to Namibian citizens or companies in which the majority of profits benefit Namibians.

These policies are perceived to have been effective in slowing stock depletion as well as increasing the value of fisheries to the local economy. However, stories of exploited labor, particularly on foreign fishing vessels have circulated. A rapid appraisal was carried out to determine the degree to which these policies have supported labor rights as well as whether the same anti-IUU policies that are heralded as success stories might in fact contribute to labor exploitation.

Under anti-IUU/“Namibianisation” policies,  foreign companies are required to pay high fees to obtain fishing rights. These fees may incentivize companies to seek savings through low-cost labor. Field research found that while conditions for workers are typically aligned with legal requirements, systemic weaknesses remain.  Surveillance is central to the Namibian fisheries regulation. Inspectors are empowered by the Marine Fisheries Resources Act of 2000 to pursue, inspect and seize items. The government employs over 200 fisheries observers. Monitoring assets include patrol vessels and aircraft for surveillance and patrols. Over 80 inspectors work in ports to ensure compliance with quota limits and fee payments. Transshipment at sea is prohibited; all fish must be landed at a Namibian port. Flag state confirmation is required for first-time applicants or joint-venture agreements.

Some of these regulations, particularly at-sea surveillance, banning of transshipment and in-port monitoring have significant potential to reduce exploitation of workers. Transshipment in particular has been noted as a key risk for both IUU fishing and abuse of workers on board fishing vessels as it decreases vulnerability to the point of catch and allows vessels to remain at sea for long periods of time. Despite these regulations, periodic incidences of labor abuses on foreign vessels have been reported. Field research confirmed that while the majority of workers in the sector are Namibian, international migrant workers, particularly Russians, are present on commercial fishing vessels. While these workers are generally employed in more highly-skilled positions, they may remain vulnerable to exploitation. Namibians tend to be concentrated in lower level jobs such as deckhands. Research also noted the presence of lower-skilled internal Namibian migrants. Expert informants interviewed reported that while awareness of IUU and biodiversity issues was high, both authorities and fishermen had low levels of awareness around trafficking risk.

Livestock

LIVESTOCK OVERVIEW

Livestock is critical to the Namibian economy, with animal stocks outnumbering people.[67] Beef production is the largest segment of the Namibian livestock sector. In addition to many subsistence herders – over 40 percent of the population raises cattle –  the commercial sector is the largest private employment source, employing over 25,000 workers.[68] Most exports of meat and animals are for the South African market.[69]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN LIVESTOCK

According to the U.S. Department of State 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report, forced labor or forced child labor is involved in cattle production in Namibia.[70] The 2016 U.S. Department of Labor List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, notes child labor in livestock in Namibia.[71] Boys from Angola are reportedly trafficked within the Namibian cattle herding sector.[72] The U.S. Department of State also reports that San and Zemba children in Namibia are at increased risk to trafficking vulnerability.[73]

In a study of hired workers on livestock farms in Namibia, 80 percent of workers had no or only some primary education and many were not receiving minimum wage.[74] Most hired workers were not allowed to own their own cattle or large stock animals.[75] The study found that due to low wages, workers took credit from their employer, the interest on which could inhibit their mobility.[76] On commercial farms, this could take the form of credit or inflated prices at a store on the premises, run by the farm owner or family members, taking advantage of the isolated nature of the worksites.[77]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors
ABA Rule of Law Initiative Country Report: Namibia

Endnotes

[1] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Namibia. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[2] World Bank. Overview: Namibia. 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/namibia/overview

[3] World Bank. Namibia Data. http://data.worldbank.org/?locations=XT-NA

[4] World Bank. Overview: Namibia. 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/namibia/overview

[5] World Bank. Macro Poverty Outlook for Namibia (Working Paper). April 2017. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/954101491415541302/Macro-poverty-outlook-for-Namibia

[6] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Statements for 2016. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/#wrapper

[7] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. U.S. Relations with Namibia. 2016. https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5472.htm

[8] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Explanatory Note. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/NAM.pdf

[9] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Namibia. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[10] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. Namibia.  https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258828.htm

[11] International Office of Migration. http://www.iom.int/world-migration#source

[12] The UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR). UNHCR Population Statistics Database. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview

[13] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[14] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[15] Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Namibia. https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/southern-africa/namibia

[16] International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights: Namibia. 2014. https://survey.ituc-csi.org/Namibia.html#tabs-2

[17] International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights: Namibia. 2014. https://survey.ituc-csi.org/Namibia.html#tabs-2

[18] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[19] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[20] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[21] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[22] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[23] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[24] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[25] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[26] Education Policy and Data Center http://www.epdc.org/country/namibia

[27] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[28] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[29] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[30] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[31] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[32] International Labour Organization. Country Profile: Namibia. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex/country_profiles.ratifications?p_lang=en&p_country=NAM

[33] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[34] Labour Resource and Research Institute (LaRRI). Export Processing Zones in Namibia: Taking A Closer Look. March 2000. http://www.afrocom.ru/common/upload/countries/namibia/documents/export_production_zones_report_eng.pdf

[35] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Statements for 2016. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/#wrapper wrapper

[36] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Report. Namibia. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2015/241676.htm

[37] Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index. 2016. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/data/

[38] World Economic Forum. The Global Competitiveness Report. 2016-2017. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GCR2016-2017/05FullReport/TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2016-2017_FINAL.pdf

[39] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Global Homicide Study. 2014.

[40] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[41] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. Namibia.  https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258828.htm

[42] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[43] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index. 2016. http://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016#results-table

[44] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index. 2016. http://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016#results-table

[45] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Data. 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/en/data

[46] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Data. 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/en/data

[47] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Explanatory Note. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/NAM.pdf

[48] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Explanatory Note. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/NAM.pdf

[49] Rural Poverty Portal. Rural Poverty in Namibia. http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/rural-poverty-portal/country/home/tags/namibia

[50] Rural Poverty Portal. Rural Poverty in Namibia. http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/rural-poverty-portal/country/home/tags/namibia

[51] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Explanatory Note. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/NAM.pdf

[52] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[53] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Social Institutions and Gender Index. Namibia. http://www.genderindex.org/country/namibia

[54] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Social Institutions and Gender Index. Namibia.http://www.genderindex.org/country/namibia

[55] Rural Poverty Portal. Rural Poverty in Namibia. http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/rural-poverty-portal/country/home/tags/namibia

[56] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[57] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. Namibia 2016 Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265496.pdf

[58] United States Department of State Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Crime and Safety Report. 2017. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21198

[59] Food and Agriculture Organization, http://www.fao.org/fishery/statistics/en

[60] Food and Agriculture Organization, http://www.fao.org/3/a-i3917e.pdf

[61] Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Republic of Namibia. Annual Address to the Namibian Fishing Industry. March 13, 2014. http://www.mfmr.gov.na/documents/53305/832050/Hon++Minister’s+Speech+to+the+Fishing+Industry+13+March+2014+%283%29.pdf/ad1046b0-6891-4720-8616-1de0fe752289

[62] All Africa. “Namibia: Govt Pushes Ahead With Plans for Third Seaport.” October 2, 2015.http://allafrica.com/stories/201510021452.html

[63] Sjöstedt, M., & Sundström, A. (2015). Coping with illegal fishing: An institutional account of success and failure in Namibia and South Africa. Biological Conservation, 189, 78–85. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2014.09.014

[64] Shinovene, Immanuelle. “Chinese vessel accused of poor conditions.” March 5, 2013. http://www.namibian.com.na/index.php?id=105881&page=archive-read

[65] Undercurrent News. “China Fishery under fire in Namibia.” December 12, 2012. https://www.undercurrentnews.com/2012/12/12/fishermen-complain-about-trawler-conditions

[66] The Conversation. “Namibia’s award-winning fish regime needs to move up a gear.” June 5, 2015.  http://theconversation.com/namibias-award-winning-fish-regime-needs-to-move-up-a-gear-42423;

[67] Tansey, Erin, Nosipho Theyise, Rosilyne Borland, and Haley West. “Southern Africa Ports as Spaces of HIV Vulnerability: Case Studies from South Africa and Namibia.” International Maritime Health 61.4 (2010): 233-40. Web. 23 Oct. 2015. <https://journals.viamedica.pl/international_maritime_health/article/viewFile/26210/21004

[68] Republic of Namibia. Livestock Competitiveness, Economic Growth and Opportunities for Job Creation in Namibia. May 31, 2012. http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Namibia%20WB%20Livestock%20and%20Meat%20Policy%20Note.pdf

[69] Republic of Namibia. Livestock Competitiveness, Economic Growth and Opportunities for Job Creation in Namibia. May 31, 2012. http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Namibia%20WB%20Livestock%20and%20Meat%20Policy%20Note.pdf

[70] Republic of Namibia. Livestock Competitiveness, Economic Growth and Opportunities for Job Creation in Namibia. May 31, 2012. http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Namibia%20WB%20Livestock%20and%20Meat%20Policy%20Note.pdf

[71] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2015. http://www.state.gov/documents/organization/245365.pdf

[72] U.S. Department of Labor. 2014 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. 2014. http://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/pdf/TVPRA_Report2014.pdf

[73] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf

[74] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf

[75] Labour Resource and Research Institute. Farmworkers in Namibia: Living and Working Conditions. 2006. http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Farmworkers%20in%20namibia%20living%20and%20working%20conditions.pdf

[76] Labour Resource and Research Institute. Farmworkers in Namibia: Living and Working Conditions. 2006. http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Farmworkers%20in%20namibia%20living%20and%20working%20conditions.pdf

[77] Labour Resource and Research Institute. Farmworkers in Namibia: Living and Working Conditions. 2006. http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Farmworkers%20in%20namibia%20living%20and%20working%20conditions.pdf

[78] Labour Resource and Research Institute. Farmworkers in Namibia: Living and Working Conditions. 2006. http://www.the-eis.com/data/literature/Farmworkers%20in%20namibia%20living%20and%20working%20conditions.pdf