Trafficking Risk in Sub-Saharan African Supply Chains

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Mozambique Country Overview

Politics

Mozambique is categorized as both a multiparty parliamentary democracy[1] and a presidential republic.[2] Current President Filipe Jacinto Nyusi came to power in 2015.[3] The voting process was judged to be “generally orderly” by national and international observers. However, the observers highlighted a lack of transparency during the tabulation of the results, and some expressed suspicion concerning ballot box stuffing and invalid votes.[4] The rebel group turned political party, RENAMO, has maintained “low-level insurgency” since 2012 despite signing a peace agreement with the ruling party, Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO) in 1992.[5] Mozambique held presidential, legislative, and provincial elections in October 2019, which resulted in Nyusi’s re-election.[6]

Economy

Mozambique is classified by the World Bank as a lower income economy.[7] The country’s economy has maintained  a slow growth trajectory following a hidden debt crisis in 2016. GDP growth averaged at 3.7 percent between 2016 and 2018, and was projected to rise slightly above 4 percent in 2019.[8]

Threats to Mozambique’s economy include severe droughts, cyclones, and floods.[9] The U.S. cited corruption, underdeveloped financial institutions, poor infrastructure, and operating costs as factors that might serve to challenge foreign investment. Despite these issues, the country demonstrates significant potential for lucrative investment in natural resource extraction and infrastructure development.[10] An international independent audit has been requested by the government of Mozambique in order to restore confidence among donors and investors.[11]

Social/Human Development

The majority of Mozambique’s citizens are African (99 percent); the population includes groups such as the Makhuwa, Tsonga, Lomwe, Sena, and others. Less than one percent of the population is described as other, pertaining to European, Indian, Pakistani, or Chinese individuals. Mozambique has a high population growth rate; however, the country also has a high mortality rate and has high rates of HIV/AIDS prevalence and death.[12]

The poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines has stayed relatively consistent at 54.1 percent in 2000 and 54.7 percent in 2010. However, the poverty headcount ratio at USD 1.90 per day (2011 PPP) has decreased from 79.3 in 2000 to 68.7 in 2010. The latest available data the World Bank has published on poverty headcount ratios in Mozambique is from 2010.[13] Mozambique’s Human Development Index score for 2019 was 0.446, placing it in the low human development category and ranking the country 180 out of 189 countries.[14]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2019)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2 Watch List

The Trafficking in Persons Report notes trafficking or trafficking vulnerability in potentially exported supply chains including agriculture, mining, and market vending, as well as sex trafficking linked to the extractive industry.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Mozambique has a negative net migration rate. 1992 was the last year that the country had a substantial positive net migration.[15] The largest source countries for migrants in 2019 were Zimbabwe, Malawi, Angola, Kenya, South Africa, and Seychelles.[16] There were an estimated 43,736 persons of concern in Mozambique at the end of 2018; about 4,907 of these persons of concern were refugees and 21,139 were asylum-seekers.[17] According to the U.S. Department of State, in April of 2019, nearly 25,000 IDPs received assistance from the UN in the aftermath of Cyclone Kenneth in the Capo Delgado Province, and approximately 30,000 IDPs that were displaced by extremist violence were reported to receive assistance from the World Food Program.[18]

[19]

The most common destination countries for migrants from Mozambique are South Africa, Zimbabwe, Portugal, Malawi, Tanzania, and Eswatini (Swaziland).[20]

[21]

Exports and Trade

Mozambique’s top exports in 2018 included mineral fuels, aluminum, ores (primarily titanium), tobacco, and precious and semi-precious stones.[22]

[23]

The top importers of all goods from Mozambique include South Africa, India, China, Italy, and the Netherlands.[24]

[25]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

The law provides for the rights of workers to form and organize unions, with exceptions for members of the defense and security services, tax administration workers, prison workers, the fire brigade, judges, prosecutors, and the staff of the President’s Office. However, the union must be approved by the government and the government can take up to 45 days to register a union. Workers have the right to collectively bargain as well, but the U.S. Department of State has reported that in practice less than five percent of workers are covered by collective bargaining contracts. The law allows workers to strike but only after they have engaged in lengthy conciliation, mediation, and arbitration efforts, which can take up to two to three weeks. Essential sectors must maintain a minimum level of services during a strike action and some are prohibited from striking altogether.[26]

Working Conditions

The U.S. Department of State reported that the lowest minimum wage mandated by the government was above the official poverty line. The legal workweek is 40 hours, but it can be extended to be up to 48 hours. Over 48 hours a week is considered overtime, and must be paid at least 50 percent above the base hourly salary. These regulations also apply to foreign workers that carry work permits. Workers have the right to be informed about hazardous working conditions and how to improve safety measures, while occupational health and safety workers of the government are required to identify unsafe conditions. These laws reportedly do not extend to the informal economy, which comprises approximately 95 percent of the labor force.[27]

Discrimination

The law prohibits discrimination in regards to employment and occupation. Despite this, discrimination remains prevalent among peoples with disabilities, HIV-positive status, and women. The law does not explicitly cover equal pay for men and women, and it does not protect women against discrimination in hiring processes. LGBTI individuals reportedly experienced societal discrimination but were protected by antidiscrimination laws in employment. The government was reported to effectively enforce most employment laws concerning discrimination while implementing penalties efficiently.[28]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits forced labor, but the U.S. Department of State reports that the government has not met the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. It is, however, reportedly making significant efforts to do so.[29]

Child Labor

The law sets the legal minimum working age at 18 for children. However, children between the ages of 15 and 17 can work if they obtain a permit from the Ministry of Labor. Children under 18 years old cannot work over seven hours per day and may not exceed 38 hours per week. Children under 18 years old are prohibited from working in hazardous conditions, which includes an extensive list of activities organized by 14 occupational categories, among which include domestic work, mining, and tobacco production. According to the U.S. Department of State, the enforcement of child labor law in the formal sector has been inadequate, and lacking completely in the informal sector. Education is compulsory for primary school (grades one to seven) and grades seven through nine of secondary school.[30]

Civil Society Organizations

According to the U.S. Department of State, civil society in Mozambique has reported incidents of restricted freedom of speech and press due to intimidation tactics from the government. It has been reported that government intelligence agents have allegedly monitored emails and phone calls and even searched the offices of civil society activists without warrants.[31] According to Freedom House, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) are able to operate freely, with the exception of groups and members that tend to be critical of government operations; groups such as these reportedly experienced frequent acts of intimidation by the government.[32]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

[33]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

In August of 2019, a new peace agreement was signed between President Filipe Nyusi and the opposition party leader of RENAMO in an effort to end political violence and prepare for a peaceful election. However, the election season remained vulnerable to acts of political violence, and 14 people were reported dead and 29 were detained as a consequence of campaign activity. Following the election, reports of fraudulent tabulation and illegal voting practices were observed by members of the European Union.[34]

Mozambique scores an 88.7 in the 2019 Fragile States Index, placing it in the “High Warning” Category. Neighboring countries Tanzania, Malawi, and Zambia are also in the “High Warning” category, and Zimbabwe is in the “Alert” Category, with scores ranging from 80.1 to 99.5. South Africa, Mozambique’s southern-most neighbor, is in the “Elevated Warning” Category with a score of 71.1.[35] Mozambique’s percentile rank for political stability and absence of violence/terrorism was 19.05 on the Work Bank’s 2019 Worldwide Governance Indicators Report.[36]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report ranked Mozambique 129/141 for organized crime.[37] The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reported a homicide rate of 3.6 in the year 2010, the most recent year for which data is available for this country.[38]

The rush atmosphere surrounding the ruby sector in Mozambique has reportedly led to armed robberies and violence among speculators.[39]

Organized criminal groups act as de facto security groups in some mining regions, intimidating artisanal miners with violence and operating with impunity. Miners report that the guards have seized money, cell phones and other possessions, and have even perpetrated incidents of violence, such as shooting.[40]

STATE PERSECUTION

According to Human Rights Watch, government security forces allegedly executed people suspected of being connected to RENAMO.[41] There was evidence that government security forces and RENAMO members have also engaged in fighting, torture, disappearances, destruction of property, and killings, and did so with impunity.[42]

Journalists, human rights defenders, and others that expressed dissenting or critical views of the government were subject to intimidation, harassment, and attacks, according to Amnesty International.[43]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scores Mozambique as a 26 out of 100, where a 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and a 100 signals “Very Clean.” Mozambique is ranked 146 out of 180 on that index.[44] According to the U.S. Department of State, corruption is a problem at all levels of the government. Impunity and extortion by police force members are among the central issues.[45] Freedom House reports that anticorruption laws are not adequately enforced by the government.[46] In a situation in 2013 referred to as the “Hidden Debt Scheme”, the government guaranteed over MZM 128 billion (USD 2 billion) worth of loans for the purpose of state-owned enterprises without disclosing information to the public or parliament. In 2019, the Constitutional Council declared the loans to be illegal and arrested over 20 people suspected of involvement in the scheme.[47]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Mozambique is scored in the low human development category, according to the UN Human Development Index, with a rank of 180 out of 189 countries and an HDI value of 0.446. Mozambique’s human development score is lower than average for Sub-Saharan African countries.[48]

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

Mozambique has a high level of poverty, with 72.5 percent of the population determined to be living in multi-dimensional poverty according to the UN. When adjusted for inequality, the Human Development Index score falls to 0.309 from 0.446.[49] Mozambique’s gross national income (GNI) per capita has steadily increased from USD 210 in 1990, USD 320 in 2000, to USD 520 in 2010, and then experienced a decrease to USD 460 in 2018.[50]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

The UNDP Gender Development Index scored Mozambique with a score of 0.901 in 2018, demonstrating an increase from a score of .899 in 2017.[51] The World Economic Forum’s 2020 Global Gender Gap Report ranks Mozambique 56 out of 153 countries.[52]

The law does not explicitly prohibit gender-based discrimination in hiring and it does not require equal pay for similar work.[53] According to the World Economic Forum, the wage equality score for similar work was .560.  An estimated 78.1 percent of women participate in the labor force compared to 79.6 percent of men. Enrollment rates were found to be similar among men and women, with 19.2 percent of men and 19.3 percent of women enrolled in secondary education and 8.1 percent of men and 6.5 percent of women enrolled in tertiary education.[54] However, the U.S. Department of State reports that many women face economic discrimination, and that the gaps in education and income between men and women remain high.[55]

The law grants men and women equal legal status. However, under customary law, women do not have rights to inherit land. The U.S. Department of State has reported that the government has failed to enforce national land ownership laws.[56]

Domestic violence, rape, and sexual harassment are prohibited by Mozambican law.[57] The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) reports that the government’s response to domestic violence has been effective. However, intra-family rape is reportedly common. This issue is further complicated due to ongoing stigmatizations surrounding the topic, with the result that these cases are rarely brought formally to court. Civil society organizations discovered that in general, families often bring rape allegations to community courts and tribunals rather than to the formal justice system.[58]

LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

In 2019, the International Organization for Migration estimated that 90,000 people were internally displaced in Mozambique as a result of Cyclone Idai and Cyclone Kenneth. In the northern districts of Cabo Delgado Province, approximately 30,000 people have been displaced as a result of extremist violence.[59] The International Organization for Migration (IOM) reported in December of 2019 that they were in the process of hosting 93,516 individuals affected by the cyclones at relocation sites, and 4,000 households had been provided with relief kits.[60]

People living around gemstone mining regions report being forced off their land, sometimes by violent means.[61]

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Mozambique experiences severe droughts, cyclones, and floods.[62] In 2019, the IOM reported that 100,159 people were displaced as a result of cyclones.[63] 

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Tobacco

TOBACCO OVERVIEW

Small scale farming operations make up the vast majority of tobacco cultivation in Mozambique, and small-scale farmers tend to as much as 98 percent of tobacco grown in the country. More than 129,755 farmers rely on tobacco farming for the majority of their income, and there are 49,450 farmers associated with the Mozambique Leaf Tobacco (MLT) company, the largest tobacco growing company in the country. Mozambican tobacco production has risen steadily in the past two decades.[64]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN TOBACCO

The U.S. Department of Labor reports that tobacco is produced with forced labor and child labor in Malawi, and with child labor in Mozambique.[65] Tobacco represents a significant crop in terms of hazardous child labor.[66] Updated information on child labor in tobacco production is hard to come by, but an ILO IPEC study found that children began working in tobacco farming as young as 4-9 years old. The study notes that children were more likely than adults to be compensated for their labor in forms other than cash. Also, of the children surveyed by IPEC who worked in tobacco, 90 percent reported that their work lives caused them to miss school.[67]

The government provides tobacco companies with exclusive buying rights in certain areas via a concessionary system.[68] This debt and resulting lack of cash may increase the producer’s reliance upon low-cost labor, such as through the work of family members. Once a loan has been taken, potential crop failures can be financially disastrous, since the risks involved in these contracts is typically the burden of the producer alone.[69] One research analyst noted that “as a result of this exploitive contracting system, many farmers may be growing tobacco involuntarily, unable to break free of the cycle of debt.”[70] Other researchers have reported that high levels of debt may cause it to be difficult for some producers to attempt to shift away from tobacco production.[71]

Gemstones

GEMSTONES OVERVIEW

In 2009, one of the largest ruby deposits in the world – estimated to hold the equivalent of 40 percent of the world’s ruby supply – was discovered in the northern region of Mozambique. Artisanal mining and illegal gemstone dealers are prevalent in the areas surrounding the mine, and there are widespread reports of violence being used to protect the ruby concession.[72]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN GEMSTONES

Children are reportedly used in sapphire mining in Mozambique as their stature allows them to fit into small pits.[73]

Miners work illegally around the edges of commercial ruby concessions. In some cases, this has led to violent clashes between miners and government and private security forces. At least 18 people have reportedly been killed by security forces since 2009.[74] In 2016, Foreign Policy documented the presence of an organized criminal group known as “Nacatanas,” which is the Portuguese word for machete, acting as de facto security guards. The Nacatanas operate on commercial concession and intimidate local artisanal miners with violence; community members have reported that they operate with impunity. Miners reported that the guards have seized money, cell phones and other possessions and have also been known to perpetrate violence, including shooting.[75] The intimidating nature of security forces has also led miners to become unwilling to leave the pits, for fear of being shot; some have been crushed or buried alive in mining pits as a result.[76]

The rush atmosphere surrounding the ruby sector in Mozambique has reportedly led to armed robberies and violence among speculators.[77] In 2016, over 300 homes were burned down in the regions around ruby mining concessions in Mozambique and local people were forced off of their land.[78]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[2] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mozambique. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mz.html

[3] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mozambique. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mz.html

[4] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[5] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mozambique. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mz.html

[6] USAID. Election Guide. October 15 2019: Republic of Mozambique. 2019. http://www.electionguide.org/elections/id/3123/

[7] World Bank. Mozambique: Overview. https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mozambique/overview

[8]  World Bank. Mozambique: Overview. https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mozambique/overview

[9] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mozambique. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mz.html  

[10] U.S. Department of State. 2019 Investment Climate Statements: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-investment-climate-statements/mozambique/

[11] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of African Affairs. U.S. Relations with Mozambique. 2018. https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/7035.htm

[12] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mozambique. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mz.html  

[13] World Bank. Country Profile: Mozambique. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/Views/Reports/ReportWidgetCustom.aspx?Report_Name=CountryProfile&Id=b450fd57&tbar=y&dd=y&inf=n&zm=n&country=MOZ

[14] United Nations Development Programme. Mozambique: Human Development Indicators. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/MOZ

[15] World Bank. Net Migration: Mozambique. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.NETM?locations=MZ

[16] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[17] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR Statistics: The World in Numbers. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview

[18] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[19] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[20] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[21] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[22] International Trade Centre. List of products at 2 digits level exported by Mozambique in 2018. 2018. https://trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1%7c508%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c%7c1%7c1%7c1

[23] International Trade Centre. List of products at 2 digits level exported by Mozambique in 2018. 2018. https://trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1%7c508%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c%7c1%7c1%7c1

[24] International Trade Centre. List of importing markets for the product exported by Mozambique in 2018. 2018. https://trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1%7c508%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1

[25] International Trade Centre. List of importing markets for the product exported by Mozambique in 2018. 2018. https://trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1%7c508%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1

[26] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[27] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[28] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[29] U.S. Department of State. 2019 Trafficking in Persons Report: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/mozambique/

[30] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[31] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[32] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2019: Mozambique. 2019. https://freedomhouse.org/country/mozambique/freedom-world/2019

[33] International Labour Organization (ILO). Ratifications for Mozambique. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11200:0::NO:11200:P11200_COUNTRY_ID:102964

[34] Human Rights Watch. Mozambique: Events of 2019. 2020. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/mozambique

[35] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index 2019. 2019. https://fragilestatesindex.org/country-data/

[36] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2019. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#reports   

[37] World Economic Forum. The Global Competitiveness Report 2019: Mozambique. 2019. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2019.pdf

[38] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Global Study on Homicide: Homicide Dataset 2019. 2019. https://dataunodc.un.org/GSH_app

[39] Valoi, Estacio. The Blood Rubies of Montepuez. Foreign Policy. May 3, 2016. http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/05/03/the-blood-rubies-of-montepuez-mozambique-gemfields-illegal-mining/

[40] Valoi, Estacio. The Blood Rubies of Montepuez. Foreign Policy. May 3, 2016. http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/05/03/the-blood-rubies-of-montepuez-mozambique-gemfields-illegal-mining/

[41] Human Rights Watch. Mozambique: Events of 2019. 2020. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/mozambique

[42] Human Rights Watch. Mozambique: Events of 2019. 2020. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2020/country-chapters/mozambique

[43] Amnesty International. Mozambique 2017/2018. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/mozambique/report-mozambique/

[44] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index 2019. 2019. https://www.transparency.org/country/MOZ

[45] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[46] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2019: Mozambique. 2019. https://freedomhouse.org/country/mozambique/freedom-world/2019

[47] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[48] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2019: Mozambique. 2019. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/MOZ.pdf

[49] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report: Human Development Indicators: Mozambique. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/MOZ

[50] World Bank. Country Profile: Mozambique. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/Views/Reports/ReportWidgetCustom.aspx?Report_Name=CountryProfile&Id=b450fd57&tbar=y&dd=y&inf=n&zm=n&country=MOZ

[51] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: Gender Development Index (GDI). 2019. http://hdr.undp.org/en/indicators/137906#   

[52] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2020: Mozambique. 2020. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2020.pdf

[53] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[54] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2020: Mozambique. 2020. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2020.pdf

[55] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[56] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[57] U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[58] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Mozambique. 2019. https://www.genderindex.org/wp-content/uploads/files/datasheets/2019/MZ.pdf

[59]  U.S Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mozambique. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/mozambique/

[60] International Organization of Migration. Mozambique Cyclone Idai and Cyclone Kenneth Response: Situation Report #3, 1 October – 31 December 2019. 2019. https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/situation_reports/file/iom_mozambique-cyclone_response_sitrep-oct-dec2019.pdf

[61] Valoi, Estacio. The Blood Rubies of Montepuez. Foreign Policy. May 3, 2016. http://foreignpolicy.com/2016/05/03/the-blood-rubies-of-montepuez-mozambique-gemfields-illegal-mining/

[62] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mozambique. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mz.html

[63] International Organization of Migration. Mozambique Cyclone Idai and Cyclone Kenneth Response: Situation Report #3, 1 October – 31 December 2019. 2019. https://www.iom.int/sites/default/files/situation_reports/file/iom_mozambique-cyclone_response_sitrep-oct-dec2019.pdf

[64] Dias P. Analysis of incentives and disincentives for tobacco in Mozambique. Technical notes series. MAFAP, FAO. 2013. http://agriknowledge.org/file_downloads//rb68xb96q

[65] U.S. Department of Labor. 2018 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. 2018. https://www.dol.gov/sites/dolgov/files/ILAB/ListofGoods.pdf

[66] Human Rights Watch. Teens of the Tobacco Fields: Child Labor in United States Tobacco Farming. December 9, 2015. https://www.hrw.org/report/2015/12/09/teens-tobacco-fields/child-labor-united-states-tobacco-farming

[67] International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC). Child Labour, Tobacco, and AIDS. ILO. 2006. https://www.ilo.org/ipec/Informationresources/WCMS_IPEC_PUB_18575/lang–en/index.htm

[68] Dias P. Analysis of incentives and disincentives for tobacco in Mozambique. Technical notes series. MAFAP, FAO. 2013. http://agriknowledge.org/file_downloads//rb68xb96q

[69] Hu, The-Wei; Lee, Anita H. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming in African Countries. February 2015.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4412848/

[70] Kuperstein, Anna. Tobacco ‘s Weakest Link: Why Tobacco Farmers are Essential Players in the Fight Against Big Tobacco. 2008. http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1152&context=jhclp

[71] Goger, Annelies; Bamber, Penny; Gereffi, Gary. The Tobacco Global Value Chain in Low-Income Countries. February 2014.

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Trafficking Risk in Sub-Saharan African Supply Chains

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