Mauritius Country Overview

Politics

Mauritius is an island nation in the Indian Ocean in Southern Africa. The country’s governmental structure is described as a parliamentary republic[1] or a multiparty parliamentary democracy.[2] President Ameenah Gurib-Fakim was elected by the National Assembly in June 2015 for a five-year term. The President appoints the prime minister, who was Sir Anerood Jugnauth from 1982 until January 2017 when he stepped down in order for his son Pravind Kumar Jugnauth to be appointed.[3] The parliamentary elections in December 2014 were judged to be generally free and fair by both international and local observers.[4] The World Bank considers Mauritius to be stable politically.[5]

Economy

Mauritius is classified by the World Bank as an upper middle income economy.[6] Mauritius’ GDP growth has greatly increased since the country’s independence in 1968, when the country began shifting from an agriculturally-based economy to a more diversified economy including industry, financial services, and tourism. Between 2010 and 2016, Mauritania’s GDP grew three to four percent per year.[7] Employment rates in agriculture and industry have been rapidly decreasing for both female and male workers, while the employment rate in services has dramatically increased. In 2015, 77.26 percent of the female workforce was in services, compared to only 46.28 in 2000, and 60.87 percent of the male workforce was in services, compared to only 50.43 in 2000.[8] The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) reports that Mauritius’ economy depends on sugar, tourism, textiles and apparel, and financial services, but that the country is developing industries in fish processing, information and communications technology, and hospitality and property development.[9]

The World Bank’s Ease of Doing Business Economy Rankings ranks Mauritius at 49th out of 190 economies, the highest of any African nation.[10] The U.S. Department of State reports that the government of Mauritius is focused on promoting foreign and domestic investment.[11]

Social/Human Development

The main ethnic group in Mauritius, constituting approximately two thirds of the total population, is Indo-Mauritian. The other third of the country is composed of Creole, Sino-Mauritian, and Franco-Mauritian. However, the CIA notes that Mauritius has not included ethnic demographic questions on the national census since 1972. There is no indigenous population in Mauritius. The different ethnic groups arose from European colonialism and slave importation from Madagascar, Mozambique, and East Africa, indentured labor from India, and modern labor migration, mostly contract workers from China and India who come to work in the apparel and textile industry.[12] According to the U.S. Department of State, the Creole (African) population is impoverished at higher rates than the other ethnic groups.[13]

Mauritius’s Human Development Index score for 2015 was 0.781, ranking the country 64 out of 188 countries and placing it in the category of high human development.[14] The World Bank did not report the poverty rate in the country.[15] According to the CIA, eight percent of the population was below the poverty line in 2006.[16]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking and trafficking risk was noted in potentially exported supply chains including manufacturing and construction.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Mauritius historically has a negative net migration, but in 2012 the net migration was neutral.[17] The largest source countries for migrants are largely India and Bangladesh, followed by China, Madagascar, France, and Sri Lanka in 2015.[18]

In 2015, the most common destination countries for migrants from Mauritius included the United Kingdom, France, Australia, Canada, Italy, and South Africa.[19]

Exports and Trade

Mauritius’ top exports in 2016 were apparel, fish, and sugar.[20] Sugarcane is grown on close to 90 percent of the cultivated land in the country.[21]

The top importers of all goods from Mauritius include the United States, France, the United Kingdom, South Africa, and Italy.[22]

Mauritius’ principle exports to the United States include apparel, diamonds, and tuna, making it the 92nd largest supplier of goods to the United States for 2015. In 2014, the last year for which data was available, U.S. foreign direct investment in Mauritius was USD 5.8 billion.[23]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

The law provides for the rights of workers (with exceptions for police, the Special Mobile Force, and government service members) to form and join independent unions, bargain collectively, and execute legal strikes. Foreign workers and employees in the export-oriented enterprises (EOE) are included in these rights. The law prohibits government interference in union activities, but authorities are permitted to deregister a union if it does not comply with its legal obligations.[24] The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) reports that there are “undue, unreasonable or unjustified prerequisites” to strike in Mauritius, including that no strike can be legally conducted when Parliament is in session. In addition, the ITUC deems the list of sectors that must maintain minimum service provision during strikes to be excessive.[25] According to the U.S. Department of State, workers’ freedom of association rights are effectively enforced by the government; however, antiunion discrimination is an issue in the private sector.[26]

Working Conditions

The law sets the minimum wage by sector and wages vary greatly in and outside the EOE. For example, unskilled domestic workers in the EOE have a minimum wage of MUR 607 (USD 17) per week while unskilled domestic factory workers outside the EOE make a minimum of MUR 794 (USD 22) per week. According to the U.S. Department of State, minimum wage law in the formal sector is effectively enforced. The legal workweek in the EOE is 45 hours. Outside of the EOE, employers cannot require workers to work over eight hours a day, six days a week. However, inside the EOE compulsory overtime is not prohibited. Workers have the right to remove themselves from hazardous conditions. According to the U.S. Department of State, the number of inspectors increased in 2016 but the number of inspections decreased and penalties were not always enough to act as a deterrent.[27]

Discrimination

The law prohibits discrimination based on race, sex, gender, disability, sexual orientation, HIV-positive status and the status of other communicable diseases, social status, religion, political opinion, and national origin, but the U.S. Department of State has reported that these laws are not effectively enforced and that discrimination occurs in practice, especially occupational discrimination with respect to gender, race, disability, and HIV status.[28]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits forced labor. However, imprisonment with compulsory prison labor is prescribed by the Merchant Shipping Act for seafarers who disobey an order or neglect a duty.[29] The U.S. Department of State reports that the government has not met the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, but that it is making significant efforts to do so.[30]

Child Labor

The law sets the legal minimum working age at 16. Children under 18 years old are prohibited from working in hazardous occupations. The U.S. Department of State has reported that the government does not effectively enforce child labor laws and that child labor still occurs in the informal sector.[31] Education is compulsory until age 16.[32]

Civil Society Organizations

Domestic and international human rights groups reportedly operate without government restriction. The U.S. Department of State reports that rights to freedom of speech and press are not always respected by the government.[33] Independent media are active in the country, but face restrictions due in part to the fact that the government owns the only domestic television network.[34]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

 [35]

Use of Export Processing Zones (EPZs)

The approximately 59,000 workers employed in the export oriented enterprises (EOE) are covered by all the national labor laws expect for laws pertaining to overtime. According to the U.S. Department of State, in practice, some employers in the EOE have created employer-controlled work councils, interfering with workers’ ability to unionize independently.[36]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Mauritius scores a 41.7 in the 2017 Fragile States Index, placing it in the “stable” category, a slight improvement from the country’s score of 43.2 in 2016.[37] India and Bangladesh, the two top sending countries for migrants to Mauritius, were both in the “warning” category.[38]

Mauritius’ percentile rank for political stability and absence of violence/terrorism was 79.5 on the World Bank’s 2015 Worldwide Governance Indicators Report.[39]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report ranks Mauritius at 43 out of 138 and 22 out of 138 for business costs of crime and violence and organized crime respectively.[40] According to the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), Mauritius had a homicide rate of 2.8 homicides per 100,000 people in 2011.[41]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scores Mauritius as a 54 out of 100, where a 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and a 100 signals “Very Clean.” Mauritius is ranked 50 out of 176 on that index.[42] Freedom House reports that there were multiple corruption scandals in 2015 that altered the country’s previous reputation for transparency and accountability. One of the scandals led to the arrest of former Prime Minister Ramgoolam on allegations of money laundering and conspiracy.[43] According to the U.S. Department of State, corruption law is not implemented effectively and officials are able to engage in corrupt practices with impunity.[44] Mauritius’ percentile rank for control of corruption was 67.8 on the Work Bank’s 2015 Worldwide Governance Indicators report.[45]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Mauritius is scored in the high human development category, according to the UN Human Development Index, with a rank of 64 out of 188 countries and a score of 0.781. The country scores higher than the average for countries in the high human development group and for countries in Sub-Saharan Africa.[46] India and Bangladesh, the two top sending countries for migrants to Mauritius, are in the medium human development category with ranks of 131 and 139 respectively.[47]

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

Mauritius has a low level of poverty, with only 0.5 percent of the population living below the income poverty line (PPP USD 1.90 per day). When adjusted for inequality, the Human Development Index score falls to 0.669.[48] Mauritius’ gross national income (GNI) per capital was USD 9,780 in 2015, a substantial increase from USD 8,250 in 2010, USD 3,870 in 2000, and USD 2,440 in 1990.[49]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Gender Inequality Index ranks Mauritius at 82 out of 159 countries in 2015.[50] In 2016, the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report ranked Mauritius 113 out of 144.[51]

Under Mauritian law, women have access to education, employment, housing, government services, and credit. They can inherit land and manage their own businesses. Sex and gender are both protected from discrimination under labor law. The law mandates equal pay for equal work as well.[52] According to the U.S. Department of State, in practice, however, women are paid less than men for similar work in the private sector.[53] Women also make up fewer decision-making positions in the private sector and are rarely found on corporate boards, with most women employed in unskilled labor jobs.[54] According to the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report 2016, the gender pay gap in Mauritius is 37 percent for similar work. Fifty-one percent of women are in the labor force compared to 81 percent of men. Women and men have relatively similar education levels, with 50 percent of both women and men enrolled in secondary education and 43 percent and 35 percent of women and men enrolled in tertiary education respectively.[55]

Rape and domestic violence, are prohibited by law. However, according to the U.S. Department of State, rape and domestic violence is widespread in Mauritius and the laws are not effectively enforced by the police or the judicial system. Spousal rape is also not explicitly criminalized. The law prohibits sexual harassment as well, but the government is ineffective in prohibiting it in practice and it has continued to be a problem.[56]

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Mauritius suffers from water pollution and the degradation of its coral reefs. The country also experiences cyclones.[57] Off-shore commercial fishing contributes to depletion of fish stocks.[58]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Sugar

SUGAR OVERVIEW

The vast majority of sugar exports from Mauritius are sent to the European Union,[59] a remnant of the preferential trade agreements established between the EU and Mauritius in previous years.[60] The industry represents a significant but declining proportion of Mauritius’ GDP.[61] 30,000 small-scale farmers grow approximately 35 percent of the raw sugar cultivated in Mauritius.[62]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN SUGAR PRODUCTION

Despite widespread mechanization, a significant proportion of sugarcane is still harvested manually in Mauritius. Cane cutters in Mauritius face similar health risks as cane cutters in other countries, including those related to exhaustion, long hours in the sun, and exposure to pesticides and dangerous wildlife.[63]

In 2013, the ITUC reported that many migrants on sugar plantations in Mauritius work under short-term contracts and in practice are unable to organize.[64]

Apparel

APPAREL OVERVIEW

Textile manufacturing is the largest industry in Mauritius, accounting for about 28 percent of exports in 2015.[65] According to the Mauritian government, there are currently about 225 textile manufacturing companies on the island. The main destinations for Mauritian textiles are the European Union, the United States and South Africa.[66]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN APPAREL MANUFACTURING

The phenomenon of migrant workers in the manufacturing sector of Mauritius has been well documented. According to the U.S. Department of State, there are over 37,000 migrant workers in the manufacturing and construction sectors from India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, China and Madagascar, “some of whom are subjected to forced labor.”[67] Migrant workers to Mauritius typically secure their employment via third-party labor brokers, leaving them with recruitment related debt.[68] Although it has previously been reported that local Mauritians are unwilling to work for the going wage rates, creating a labor shortage, an additional factor creating a pull for migrant workers is short-term four month contracts which are unappealing to local workers.[69] Protections for workers are further weakened in Export Processing Zones, where many migrant workers are engaged.[70]

Fish

FISH OVERVIEW

The Mauritian fishing sector includes artisanal fishing and commercial offshore fishing. Foreign vessels, including Thai vessels, fish both legally and illegally in Mauritius’ EEZ waters.[71]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN FISH PRODUCTION

Trafficked Cambodian workers have been identified on offshore commercial fishing vessels.[72] These waters are reportedly not effectively monitored.

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html

[2] World Bank. Mauritius: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mauritius/overview

[3] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html

World Bank. Mauritius: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mauritius/overview

[4] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[5] World Bank. Mauritius: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mauritius/overview

[6] World Bank. Mauritius. 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/country/mauritius

[7] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html

[8] World Bank. Social Protection & Labor: Mauritius. 2015. http://data.worldbank.org/topic/social-protection-and-labor?locations=MU

[9] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html

[10] World Bank. Doing Business: Economy Rankings. June 2016. http://www.doingbusiness.org/rankings

[11] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Mauritius. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/#wrapper

[12] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html According to the CIA, eight percent of the population was below the poverty line in 2006. industryonialism and labor migration.

[13] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[14] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2016: Mauritius. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/MUS.pdf 

[15] World Bank. Mauritius. 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/country/mauritius

[16] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html

[17] World Bank. Net Migration: Mauritius. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.NETM?locations=MU 

[18] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: By Destination and Origin. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml 

[19] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: By Destination and Origin. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml 

[20] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[21] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html

U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

World Bank. Mauritius: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mauritius/overview

[22] International Trade Centre. List of importing markets for the product exported by Mauritius in 2016. 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1|480||||TOTAL|||2|1|1|2|1||2|1|1

[23] Office of the U.S. Trade Representative. Mauritius. https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/east-africa/mauritius#

[24] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[25] International Trade Union Confederation. Survey of violations of Trade Union Rights: Mauritius. March 2010. http://survey.ituc-csi.org/Mauritius.html?lang=en#tabs-2

[26] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[27] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[28] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[29] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[30] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. Mauritius. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258820.htm.

[31] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[32] U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of International Labor Affairs. 2015 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor: Mauritius. 2015. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/resources/reports/child-labor/mauritius

[33] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[34] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[35] International Labour Organization (ILO). Ratifications for Mauritius. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=1000:11210:0::NO:11210:P11210_COUNTRY_ID:103106 

[36] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[37] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index 2017: Mauritania. 2017. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/2017/05/14/fsi-2017-factionalization-and-group-grievance-fuel-rise-in-instability/ 

[38] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html

[39] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2015. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#reports 

[40] World Economic Forum. Global Competitiveness Index: Mauritius. 2016-2017. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-index/country-profiles/#economy=MUS 

[41] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Global Homicide Study. 2014. https://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf

[42] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index 2016: Mauritius. 2016. https://www.transparency.org/country/MUS 

[43] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Mauritius. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/mauritius 

[44] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[45] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2015. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#reports 

[46] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2016: Mauritius. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/MUS.pdf 

[47] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2016: India. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/IND.pdf

United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2016: Bangladesh. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/BGD.pdf 

[48] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: Mauritius. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/MUS 

[49] World Bank. Mauritius. 2015. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/MUS 

[50] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: Gender Development Index (GDI). 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/MUS.pdf 

[51] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Mauritius. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=MUS 

[52] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[53] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[54] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[55] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Mauritius. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=MUS 

[56] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritius. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265280.htm

[57] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritius. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mp.html

[58] United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. Country Review: Mauritius.  http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/a0477e/a0477e0z.htm

[59] Zafar, Salaman. 2014. “Salient Features of Sugar Industry in Mauritius – BioEnergy Consult.” BioEnergy Consult: Powering Clean. January 12. http://www.bioenergyconsult.com/sugar-industry-mauritius/  

[60] Mauritius Sugar Syndicate. “Mauritius Sugar Syndicate Sugarcane Cultivation Products.” 2017.  http://mauritiussugar.mu/index.php/en/products.html

[61] Mauritius Island Online. “Sugar Industry.”  https://www.maurinet.com/business_information/sugar_industry

[62] Zafar, Salaman. 2014. “Salient Features of Sugar Industry in Mauritius – BioEnergy Consult.” BioEnergy Consult: Powering Clean. January 12. https://www.bioenergyconsult.com/sugar-industry-mauritius/

[63] Southern African Farm Workers Network. 2012. “Sugar Bulletin,” May, Issue 2. http://khanyacollege.org.za/sites/default/files/sugar-bulletin-may2012%20.pdf

[64] International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Global Rights Index. Survey of violations of Trade Union Rights. 2013. http://survey.ituc-csi.org/Mauritius.html?lang=en#tabs-3.

[65] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.prg

[66] Source Mauritius. http://sourcemauritius.com/mauritian-economy/textile/

[67] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/

[68] Ackbarally, Naseem. “Migrant Labour Fuels Tensions in Mauritius.” IPS. August 29, 2016. http://www.ipsnews.net/2016/08/migrant-labour-fuels-tensions-in-mauritius/

[69] Ackbarally, Naseem. “Migrant Labour Fuels Tensions in Mauritius.” IPS. August 29, 2016.  http://www.ipsnews.net/2016/08/migrant-labour-fuels-tensions-in-mauritius/

[70] Suntoo, Rajen; Chittoo, Hermant. Working and Living conditions of Chinese migrants in

Mauritius. Global Journal of Human Social Science. November 2011.  https://globaljournals.org/GJHSS_Volume11/1-Working-and-Living-conditions-of-Chinese.pdf

[71] Indian Ocean Trade Commission. Complementary Trace Information. http://www.iotc.org/sites/default/files/documents/2016/04/IOTC-2016-CoC13-08aE_-_Complementary_IUU_information_0.pdf

[72] Kang, Dake. AP News. “Thai Fishing Boats Sail Far to Avoid Regulations.” September 15, 2016. https://apnews.com/2784fedca6a44baeae928f43e1edfb07/greenpeace-thai-fishing-boats-sail-far-avoid-regulations