Mauritania Country Overview

Politics

Mauritania is a democratic republic in West Africa. In June 2014, President Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz was re-elected. Aziz had originally ousted President Sidi Ould Cheikh Abdellahi in a 2008 coup, but then chose to retire from the military, step down from the seized presidency, and run in the legitimate presidential election in April 2009, in which he won.[1]

Economy

Mauritania is classified by the World Bank as a lower middle income economy.[2] According to the World Bank, Mauritania’s GDP growth has been robust, averaging around 5.5 percent per year between 2003 and 2015. Mauritania’s GDP growth is due mostly to the country’s extractives sector which represented 25 percent of the GDP, 82 percent of exports, and 23 percent of domestic revenue.[3] In 2015 and 2016, Mauritania’s GDP growth decreased to 1.2 percent and 3.2 percent respectively as a result of poor trade terms and slower mining and oil production.[4] Despite the country’s high reliance on extractive commodities, such as iron ore, gold, copper, gypsum, phosphate rock, uranium, crude oil, and natural gas, half the country’s population is engaged in agriculture and livestock for their livelihoods. Fishing is also a key economic resource for Mauritania, representing 25 percent of the country’s budget revenues.[5]

Threats to Mauritania’s economy include overfishing by foreigners, recurring droughts, dependence on foreign investment and aid, insecurity in neighboring Mali, and shortages in domestic infrastructure, institutional capacity, and human capital.[6]

According to the U.S. Department of State, Mauritania is welcoming to foreign direct investment, but the country’s underdeveloped infrastructure, complicated labor and tax laws, weak judicial system, and lack of skilled labor make it a challenging investment climate.[7] The U.S. Department of State describes economic relations with Mauritania as limited but growing.[8]

 

Social/Human Development

The Mauritanian population is growing and almost 60 percent of the population is under 25 years of age. However, according to the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), this population is poorly equipped to enter the workforce. The educational quality in the country is reportedly low, women are underrepresented, and black Moors are excluded all together, making them especially vulnerable to exploitation and trafficking. Despite anti-slavery laws, Mauritania has the highest rate of enslavement of any country in the world at 20 percent of the population reported to be enslaved.[9]

Although poverty levels across the population have been declining, they are still relatively high at 42 percent in 2010, compared to 51 percent in 2000.[10] The World Bank classifies Mauritania’s performance in poverty reduction as above average and the country’s poverty elasticity to GDP growth is the fourth highest in Africa.[11] The percentage of the population living at USD 1.90 a day (2011 international prices) has declined dramatically from 41.2 percent in 1990, 19.6 percent in 2000, 10.8 percent in 2010, and 5.9 percent in 2015.[12] Mauritania’s Human Development Index score for 2015 was 0.513, ranking the country 157 out of 188 countries.[13]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 3

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking and trafficking risk was noted in potentially exported supply chains including cattle herding.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Mauritania has a negative net migration.[14] In 2015, almost three percent of Mauritanians lived outside their country.[15] International migrants made up less than five percent of the Mauritanian population in 2015.[16] The largest source countries for migrants were Mali and Senegal.[17] There were an estimated 77,891 persons of concern in Mauritania at the end of 2015. There were an estimated 77,394 refugees and 497 asylum-seekers.[18] There were reportedly around 42,000 Malian refugees in the south-eastern Mbera camp who were fleeing the Northern Mali Conflict.[19]

The most common destination country for migrants from Mauritania is Senegal, followed by France, Mali, Spain, and Côte d’Ivoire.[20]

Exports and Trade

Mauritania’s top exports in 2016 include iron ores and concentrates, frozen fish, mollusks, gold, and copper ores and concentrates.[21]

The top importers of all goods from Mauritania include China, Switzerland, Spain, Japan, and Italy.[22]

Mauritania was the 115th largest supplier of goods to the United States in 2013 and primarily exported mineral fuel.[23]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

Although the law provides for the rights of workers (with exceptions for police, armed forces and foreign and migrant workers) to form and organize unions, a union must receive authorization from the public prosecutor in order to be legally recognized. The law also allows administrative authorities to dissolve, suspend, or deregister unions.[24] Workers are allowed to bargain collectively as well, but previous authorization from the President is required for bargaining at the national level and the Ministry for the Civil Service and Labor controls whether or not an organization can participate in negotiations.[25] According to the U.S. Department of State, workers are given the right to strike but the process is subject to considerable conditions, which may make it difficult to implement in practice.[26]

Working Conditions

The law set the minimum wage at MRO 30,000 (USD 86) per month. The legal workweek for nonagricultural works is 40 hours or six days, with overtime pay beyond that point. The legal workweek for domestic workers is 56 hours. There are no laws concerning compulsory overtime. At least one 24-hour rest period per week is required. Workers in the formal sector have the right to remove themselves from hazardous conditions. However, this law does not apply to workers in the informal sector. The Labor Office is reportedly ineffective at enforcing labor laws.[27]

Discrimination

The law prohibits discrimination based on race, disability, religion, political opinion, national origin, citizenship, social origin, sexual orientation and/or gender identity, age, or language, but the U.S. Department of State reports that these laws are not always enforced and that discrimination occurs in practice, especially in respect to race and language.[28]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits forced labor, but the U.S. Department of State reports that the government has not met the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and has failed to make significant efforts to do so.[29]

Child Labor

The law sets the legal minimum working age at 14. However, children as young as 12 can work in family enterprises with some restrictions and with the authorization of the Ministry of Labor, Public Service, and Modernization of the Administration. The employment of children is not prohibited in all hazardous occupations and activities and children are not explicitly prohibited from being employed for illicit activities, such as drug production or trafficking. Education is compulsory for six years of school attendance.[30]

Civil Society Organizations

The U.S. Department of State reports that human rights groups “generally operated without government restriction” and that “government officials were somewhat cooperative and responsive to their views.”[31] However, according to Freedom House, civil society groups and NGOs often experience intimidation, violence, and repression.[32]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

 [33]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Mauritania scored a 93.7 in the 2017 Fragile States Index, placing it in the “Alert” Category, a slight improvement from the country’s score of 95.4 in 2016.[34]

Mauritania’s percentile rank for political stability and absence of violence/terrorism was 23 on the World Bank’s 2015 Worldwide Governance Indicators Report.[35]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The U.S. Department of State reports that the crime level in Mauritania’s capital, Nouakchott, is critical.[36] The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report ranked Mauritania at 117/138 and 129/138 for business costs of crime and violence and organized crime respectively.[37]

STATE PERSECUTION

Amnesty International reports that human rights defenders, anti-slavery organizations, and political opponents of the government face state persecution in Mauritania.[38] According to the U.S. Department of State, persons without identity cards have difficulty traveling in some regions of the country and without a birth certificate, children are blocked from enrolling in school, accessing health care, and other benefits of citizenship. Mauritania’s sub-Saharan ethnic minorities and the Haratines often lack documentation.[39] 

Only Muslims are allowed to be citizens in Mauritania.[40] However, Freedom House reports that, despite the fact that proselytizing by non-Muslims is illegal and non-Muslims are barred from citizenship, non-Muslim communities have not been targeted by state persecution.[41]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scores Mauritania at 27 out of 100, where a 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and a 100 signals “Very Clean.” Mauritania is ranked 142 out of 176 on that index.[42] According to the U.S. Department of State, officials engage in corruption with impunity in the country, and corruption is believed to infiltrate all levels of government. The U.S. Department of State reports that the World Bank categorized corruption in the country as rampant.[43]

Freedom House has stated that corruption is a problem specifically relating to bank loans, fishing licenses, land distribution, government contracts, and tax payments.[44] The U.S. Department of State adds that the judiciary is subject to undue influence and corruption from tribal affiliations, politicians, and business figures.[45]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Mauritania is scored in the low human development category, according to the UN Human Development Index, with a rank of 157 out of 188 countries and a score of 0.513. Mauritania’s human development score is higher than its southern neighbors, Senegal and Mali, but lower than Algeria and Morocco to the north.[46]

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

Mauritania has a relatively high level of poverty, with 55.6 percent of the population determined to be living in multi-dimensional poverty according to the UN. When adjusted for inequality, the Human Development Index score falls to 0.347.[47] Mauritania’s gross national income (GNI) per capita is USD 1,370 in 2014, a substantial increase from USD 1,140 in 2010, USD 510 in 2000, and USD 490 in 1990. The income share held by the lowest 20 percent has also increased, but it remains quite low at 7.6 percent.[48]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) Gender Equality Index scores Mauritania low for gender equality, ranking it 157 out of 188 countries in 2015.[49] In 2016, the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report ranked Mauritania 129 out of 144.[50]

Gender equality is protected by the Mauritanian constitution and the law prohibits discrimination based on gender identity. However, there is no precise definition of discrimination offered in Mauritanian legislation, making it difficult to enforce.[51] Women have the right to own land, but CEDAW reported that only 18.7 percent of women owned property in 2012. Women have the right to inherit property as well. However, under Sharia law women are entitled to only half of what men can inherit. Women can sign contracts, register businesses, and open bank accounts.[52] Women also have the right to child custody, but they can lose this right if they remarry.[53] Under Sharia law, the testimony of two women is equal to one man in court and families of male victims receive twice the compensation that families of female victims receive. Mauritania law prescribes a framework to consistently apply secular and sharia-based family law. However, according to the U.S. Department of State, judicial officials do not always apply this framework.[54]

The law mandates equal pay for equal work. According to the U.S. Department of State, this law has been observed in civil service and the state mining company, the country’s two largest employers. However, employers in the private sector often have not observed this law.[55] The World Economic Forum Global Gender Gap Report 2016 notes that the gender pay gap in Mauritania is 43 percent for similar work. Thirty percent of women are in the labor force compared to 66 percent of men. Women and men have relatively similar education levels, however, with 22 percent of women and 24 percent of men enrolled in secondary education.[56]

Rape is illegal under Mauritanian law; however, no definition is offered. There are no laws criminalizing domestic violence and sexual harassment.[57] The U.S. Department of State reports that local NGOs indicate that incidences of rape and domestic violence are high in the country and sexual harassment is common in the workplace.[58]

LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

Land dispossession has a long and complex history in Mauritania, especially in the southern part of the country along the Senegal River. Between 1989 and 1991 the government removed tens of thousands of non-Arab sub-Saharan citizens from the Senegal River Valley and expelled them from the country. The dispossessed land was then sold or given to members of the Beydane (Arab) ethnic group. According to the U.S. Department of State, there are still frequent land disputes among Haratines, sub-Saharans, and Beydane. Local authorities have reportedly allowed Beydane to appropriate land occupied by Haratines and sub-Saharans and to obstruct access to water and pastures.[59] In 2014, the Mauritanian government signed an agreement with the Saudi Arabian Al Rajhi Bank that gave the Bank permission to cultivate 31,000 hectares in two provinces in the Senegal River Valley without the consent of rural communities.[60]

Slavery and slavery-related practices still persist in Mauritania, according to the U.S. Department of State. Former slaves and descendants continue to work for their former masters in many instances because of a lack of marketable skills, access to land, and poverty. The law calls for the redistribution of land to persons without land, but authorities rarely enforce it, according to the U.S. Department of State.[61]

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Mauritania experiences periodic droughts, which with overgrazing and deforestation, is leading to the desertification of the country.[62] The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that flooding is also an issue in the country with more than 140,000 people affected by flooding in 2016.[63]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Livestock

LIVESTOCK OVERVIEW

There are an estimated 15.9 million sheep and goats and 1.4 million cattle in Mauritania. The country produces a surplus of meat, with surplus being exported regionally, primarily to Senegal.[64] Livestock rearing is practiced mainly in the Sahelian zone.[65]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

In Mauritania, inherited slavery may force individuals to work as unpaid cattle herders.[66]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritania. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html

[2] World Bank. Mauritania. http://data.worldbank.org/country/mauritania

[3] World Bank. Mauritania: Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mauritania/overview (accessed June 2017)

[4] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritania. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html

World Bank. Mauritania: Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mauritania/overview

[5] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritania. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html

[6] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritania. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html

[7] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Mauritania. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[8] U.S. Department of State. U.S. Relations with Mauritania: Fact Sheet. April 13, 2016. https://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5467.htm

[9] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritania. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html

[10] World Bank. Country Profile: Mauritania. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/Views/Reports/ReportWidgetCustom.aspx?Report_Name=CountryProfile&Id=b450fd57&tbar=y&dd=y&inf=n&zm=n&country=MRT

[11] World Bank. Mauritania: Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/mauritania/overview

[12] World Bank. Country Profile: Mauritania. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/Views/Reports/ReportWidgetCustom.aspx?Report_Name=CountryProfile&Id=b450fd57&tbar=y&dd=y&inf=n&zm=n&country=MRT

[13] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Report 2016: Mauritania. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/MRT.pdf

[14] World Bank. Net Migration: Mauritania. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.NETM?locations=MR

[15] International Organization for Migration (IOM). Mauritania. http://www.iom.int/countries/mauritania  

[16] United Nations (UN). Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: Maps. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimatesmaps.shtml?1t1

[17] United Nations (UN). Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: By Destination and Origin. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml

[18] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR Statistics: The World in Numbers. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview

[19] Laroze-Barrit, Sebastien. “Mali refugees cautious about return, despite peace deal.” United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). July 7, 2016. http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/news/latest/2016/7/577b5dc84/mali-refugees-cautious-return-despite-peace-deal.html

[20] United Nations (UN). Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: By Destination and Origin. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml

[21] International Trade Centre. Bilateral trade between Mauritania and World in 2016. 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Bilateral.aspx?nvpm=1|478||000||TOTAL|||2|1|1|2|1|1|1|1|

[22] International Trade Centre. List of importing markets for the product exported by Mauritania in 2016. 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1|478||||TOTAL|||2|1|2|2|1|1|2|1|1

[23] Office of the United States Trade Representative. Mauritania. https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/west-africa/mauritania

[24] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[25] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights: Mauritania. March 2010. https://survey.ituc-csi.org/Mauritania.html#tabs-2

[26] U.S Department of State Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[27] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[28] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[29] U.S. Department of State. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report: Mauritania. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258819.htm

[30] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[31] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[32] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Mauritania. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/mauritania

[33] International Labour Organization (ILO). Ratifications for Mauritania. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11200:0::NO::P11200_COUNTRY_ID:103075 (accessed June 2017)

[34] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index 2017: Mauritania. 2017. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/2017/05/14/fsi-2017-factionalization-and-group-grievance-fuel-rise-in-instability/

[35] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2015. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#reports

[36] U.S. Department of State, Bureau of Diplomatic Security (OSAC). Mauritania 2017 Crime & Safety Report. 2017. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21546

[37] World Economic Forum. Global Competitiveness Index: Mauritania. 2016-2017. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-index/country-profiles/#economy=MRT

[38] Amnesty International. Annual Report: Mauritania 2016/2017. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/mauritania/report-mauritania/

[39] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[40] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[41] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Mauritania. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/mauritania

[42] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index 2016: Mauritania. 2016. https://www.transparency.org/country/MRT

[43] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[44] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Mauritania. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/mauritania

[45] U.S Department of State, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Mauritania. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper

[46] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Reports: International Human Development Indicators. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries

[47] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Reports: Mauritania. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/MRT

[48] World Bank. Country Profile: Mauritania. 2015. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/Views/Reports/ReportWidgetCustom.aspx?Report_Name=CountryProfile&Id=b450fd57&tbar=y&dd=y&inf=n&zm=n&country=MRT

[49] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Human Development Reports: Gender Development Index (GDI). 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/en/indicators/137906#

[50] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Mauritania. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=MRT

[51] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Mauritania. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/mauritania

[52] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Mauritania. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/mauritania

[53] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Mauritania. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/mauritania

[54] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[55] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania., 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[56] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Mauritania. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=MRT

[57] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Mauritania. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/mauritania

[58] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[59] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[60] U.S Department of State, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. 2016 Investment Climate Statements: Mauritania. July 5, 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016/af/254221.htm

[61] U.S Department of State. Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Mauritania. 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/2016/af/265278.htm

[62] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Mauritania. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mr.html

[63] World Health Organization (WHO). Mauritania Humanitarian Response Plan 2016. 2016. http://www.who.int/hac/crises/mrt/appeals/en/

[64] World Food Programme (WFP). Mauritania: Profile of cereal and livestock markets: Implication for food security. September 2006. http://documents.wfp.org/stellent/groups/public/documents/ena/wfp112330.pdf?_ga=2.222713691.113682573.1502200926-783962943.1502200926

[65] Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO). Country Pasture/Forage Resource Profiles: Mauritania. http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/counprof/mauritania/mauritania.htm#4. RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

[66] U.S. Department of State. Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf