Malawi Country Overview

Politics

Malawi is a presidential republic in Southeast Africa. President Peter Mutharika, brother of previous President Bingu wa Mutharika, was elected in May 2014 for his first five-year term.[1] International observers considered the election to be “free, transparent, and credible.”[2] Based on the country’s new constitution, which came into full effect in 1995, the President can only serve two five-year terms. Previously, President Hastings Kamuzu Banda had occupied the presidency for three decades, since independence in 1964.[3]

Economy

Malawi is classified by the World Bank as a low-income economy.[4] According to the World Bank, Malawi’s GDP grew by 5.7 percent in 2014, but by only 2.5 percent in 2016. This decrease in growth was due to two years of drought throughout the country, as well as flooding in the south, both of which greatly affected the country’s agricultural production.[5] The agricultural sector comprises one third of the country’s GDP and 80 percent of exports.[6] Malawi’s top exports in 2016 include tobacco, tea, sugar, dried legumes, and nuts.[7] The country also produces cotton and coffee. Around 80 percent of Malawians are employed in the agricultural sector.[8]

The World Bank reports that the country’s economy is challenged by its vulnerability to changes in climate and fiscal management issues.[9] According to the U.S. Department of State, the government of Malawi encourages foreign direct investment. The government is particularly promoting investments in the agricultural sector, including sugar cane, livestock, and commercial agriculture.[10]

Social/Human Development

There are a number of ethnic groups in Malawi, the major group being the Chewa (34.7 percent), followed by the Lomwe (19.1 percent), and the Yao (13.4 percent). Malawi has a high population growth rate, leading to high population density, which has strained the country’s resources.[11] The 2015-2016 Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the DHS Program reported that 12 percent of women in Malawi had no formal education, compared to five percent of men. Education is compulsory for children under 18 years old.[12]

Just over half of the country’s population (50.7 percent) was in poverty in 2010, according to the World Bank, which represented a slight improvement from 52.4 in 2004 and a large improvement from 65.3 in 1997.[13] The percentage of the population living at USD 1.90 a day (2011 international prices) declined between 2010 and 2004 as well, from 73.63 percent in 2004 to 70.91 in 2010. In 1997, 63.63 percent of the population lived on USD 1.90 a day.[14] Malawi’s Human Development Index score for 2015 was 0.476, ranking the country 170 out of 188 countries.[15] 

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking and trafficking risk was noted in potentially exported supply chains including animal herding, agriculture (predominantly the tobacco industry), and fishing.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Malawi has a negative net migration.[16] The most common destination country for migrants from Malawi is Zimbabwe, followed by Mozambique and South Africa.[17]

The largest source countries for migrants is Mozambique, followed by Zambia and Zimbabwe.[18]

There were an estimated 30,415 persons of concern in Malawi at the end of 2016, including an estimated 9,392 refugees and 21,023 asylum-seekers.[19]

Exports and Trade

Malawi’s top exports in 2016 include tobacco, tea, sugar, dried legumes, and nuts.[20]
The top importers of all goods from Malawi include Belgium, Germany, the U.S., Russia, and South Africa.[21]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

Although the law provides for the rights of workers (with exceptions for police and military personnel) to form and organize unions, a union must register with the Registrar of Trade Unions and Employers’ Organizations in the Ministry of Labor. In order to engage in collective bargaining, a union must have bargaining status and previous authorization from authorities. Members of a registered union may strike, but only after they have engaged in a settlement procedure. Workers in the essential services have a limited right to strike. Informal sector workers are excluded from these protections. According to the U.S. Department of State, the government does not enforce these laws effectively.[22]

Working Conditions

The Minister of Labor set the minimum wage at MWK 688 (USD 0.95) per day in October 2015. The minimum wage applied to foreign and migrant workers but not to workers in the informal sector, where the majority of Malawi’s citizens work. The legal workweek is 48 hours with a mandatory 24-hour rest period per week. Workers in the formal sector have the right to remove themselves from hazardous conditions. According to the U.S. Department of State, the government does not effectively enforce the minimum wage, workweek standards, nor health and safety standards.[23]

Discrimination

The law prohibits discrimination based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, nationality, ethnic or social origin, disability, property, birth, marital or other status, family responsibilities, and communicable disease status, including HIV/AIDS. The U.S. Department of State has noted that that these laws are not effectively enforced and that discrimination occurs in practice, especially in respect to gender and disability.[24]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits forced labor, but the U.S. Department of State reports that the government has not met the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking, though it is reportedly making significant efforts to do so.

Child Labor

The law sets the legal minimum working age at 14. Children under 18 are not allowed to work in hazardous jobs or in jobs that interfere with their schooling. However, child labor law does not apply in homes or training institutions, like vocational technical schools. Education is compulsory for children under age 18.[25]

Civil Society Organizations

The U.S. Department of State reports that human rights groups “generally operated without government restriction” and that “government officials were somewhat cooperative and responsive to their views.”[26] However, according to Freedom House, registration provisions and fee requirements for NGOs are burdensome.[27]

Immigration Policies Limiting the Employment Options or Movement of Migrants

Immigration laws and regulations require investors, local and foreign, to hire Malawian citizens unless certain skills are needed that a national cannot provide.[28] An encampment policy limits refugees’ freedom of moment, requiring refugees to remain in either the Dzaleka or Luwani refugee camp. Authorities routinely detain and return refugees found outside of either camp.[29]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

[30]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Malawi scores an 88 in the 2017 Fragile States Index, placing it between the “Warning” and “Alert” categories, a slight decrease from the country’s score of 88.4 in 2016. Neighboring Mozambique and Zambia score 89 and 87.8 respectively, placing them between the “Warning” and Alert” categories as well. Zimbabwe’s score was 101.6, placing it in the “Alert” category.[31] Malawi’s percentile rank for political stability and absence of violence/terrorism was 45 on the Work Bank’s 2015 Worldwide Governance Indicators report.[32]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

According to the U.S. Department of State, “Malawi presents a crime and safety situation that is consistent with many impoverished and developing countries.”[33] The U.S. Department of State reports that local citizens and mobs sometimes killed suspected thieves and engaged in other vigilante assaults. The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report rank Malawi at 120/138 and 83/138 for business costs of crime and violence and organized crime respectively.[34]

STATE PERSECUTION

Authorities, in line with the encampment policy, detain and return refugees who are found traveling outside of the country’s two refugee camps.[35]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scores Malawi as a 31 out of 100, where a 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and 100 signals “Very Clean.” Malawi is ranked 120 out of 176 on that index.[36] According to Freedom House, corruption is endemic in the country. The Anti-Corruption Bureau (ACB) reports that every year an estimated 30 percent of Malawi’s annual budget is lost to corruption. Between 2009 and 2014, USD 800 million disappeared from the country’s public reserves.[37]

Corruption is present in customs, tax, and procurement agencies, which effects the country’s ability to do business.[38] According to the U.S. Department of State, corruption is a major barrier to foreign investment in Malawi.[39] Corruption is present in the judicial system as well.[40]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Malawi is scored in the low human development category, according to the UN Human Development Index, with a rank of 170 out of 188 countries and a score of 0.476. Malawi’s human development score is higher than neighboring Mozambique, Malawi’s largest source country for migrants, but lower than Zimbabwe, Zambia, and Tanzania.[41]

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

Malawi has a relatively high level of poverty, with 56.1 percent of the population determined to be living in multidimensional poverty according to the UN. When adjusted for inequality, the Human Development Index score falls to 0.328.[42] Malawi’s gross national income (GNI) per capita was USD 320 in 2016, a decrease from USD 430 in 2010, but a substantial increase from USD 150 in 2000 and USD 180 in 1990. The income share held by the lowest 20 percent was 5.5 in 2010, up from 3.9 in 2000.[43]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

The UNDP Gender Equality Index gave Malawi a score of 0.921 in 2015, up from 0.904 in 2010, and 0.825 in 2000.[44] For 2016, the World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report ranks Malawi 67 out of 144.[45]

Gender equality is protected by the Malawian constitution and the law prohibits discrimination based on gender or marital status.[46] However, according to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), women experience discrimination socially and economically in practice. Women have equal ownership rights to property and non-land assets, as well as unrestricted access to financial services. These rights are not always respected in practice. The OECD reports that the Women and Law in Southern Africa group found that “property-grabbing” from widows in Malawi is common.[47] The U.S. Department of State adds that “widow cleansing” through forced sexual relations with male in-laws and “widow inheritance” still occur in isolated areas of the country despite being prohibited by law.[48]

The law mandates equal pay for men and women. However, in 2016, the gender pay gap in Malawi was 30 percent. Men and women experience similar percentages of labor force participation, with 81 percent of women participating compared to 80 percent of men.[49] However, according to the U.S. Department of State, women have fewer formal employment opportunities.[50] Women have lower levels of literacy than men and 59 percent of women are enrolled in primary education compared to 73 percent of men.[51] According to the DHS Program’s 2015-2016 Demographic and Health Survey, 12 percent of women in Malawi had no formal education compared to only five percent of men.[52]

Rape is illegal under Malawian law and the law is effectively enforced, according to the U.S. Department of State. The law also criminalizes domestic violence; however, it remains a common problem, and authorities reportedly rarely intervene. Sexual harassment is prohibited by law as well, though there are no statistics available on prevalence or effectiveness of government enforcement efforts.[53]

LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

According to the U.S. Department of State, most land in Malawi is owned under customary land tenure laws, which are not legally binding. The country is currently in the process of trying to convert these customary leaseholds to official leaseholds.[54] “Property-grabbing” from widows is reportedly still a common practice in the country.[55] Landgrabs associated with sugar reportedly occurs.[56]

 
USE OF EXPORT PROCESSING ZONES (EPZs)

According to the U.S. Department of State, regular labor laws apply in Malawi’s export processing zones.[57]

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

Malawi experiences annual flooding in the southern Shire River Basin, which the Malawi Economic Vulnerability and Disaster Risk Assessment estimated results in a 0.7 percent loss in GDP (the equivalent of USD 9 million) each year.[58]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Tobacco

TOBACCO OVERVIEW

Agriculture provides over 80 percent of Malawi’s foreign exchange earnings and employs over 80 percent of the workforce, mostly on small farms. Malawi has the world’s most tobacco-dependent economy and is a top producer of Burley tobacco.[59] The vast majority of tobacco farmers depend on the crop for their household’s livelihood. Most of the workforce on tobacco farms is family labor, but hired labor is utilized as well. Until the 2012 season, tobacco in Malawi was sold through an auction system; this caused high levels of price instability and led to livelihood concerns for farmers, potentially encouraging child labor. The auction system also prevented buyers from fully using leverage to discourage child labor.[60] Since 2012, most tobacco in Malawi is purchased under an Integrated Production System (IPS), under which farmers contract with leaf buying companies. The leaf companies may also provide farmers with agricultural inputs or cash loans.[61]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

The U.S. Department of State 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report notes trafficking or trafficking vulnerability in tobacco production in Malawi.[62] The U.S. Department of Labor reports that tobacco is produced with forced labor and child labor in Malawi.[63] In Malawi, human trafficking risk may occur in the context of tenant farming. Families make agreements with landowners whereby they receive a portion of the profit from the tobacco harvest in exchange for labor in growing and harvesting the crop.[64] Tenants are generally expected to pay for seeds and other expenses. Because this system rarely results in profit for the tenants, they can become indebted to the landowner.[65] A recent study found that estate owners in Malawi are less likely to recruit through district labor offices, instead relying on increasingly aggressive recruitment strategies, including the use of third-party labor brokers/middlemen. Returning tenants may also act as labor brokers to recruit new tenants.[66]

Tea

TEA OVERVIEW

Tea in Malawi is grown on both estates and smallholder farms. Updated employment data was not available, but in 2002 there were an estimated 42,000 estate employees and 7,000 small farmers. A relatively small percentage of tea is sold via an auction system and the rest is sold directly to exporters. Tea brokers act to facilitate sales between estates and buyers.[67]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN TEA PRODUCTION

According to the U.S. Department of Labor 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, tea is produced using child labor in Malawi.[68] While child labor on estates has not been well documented, a recent study notes that the lack of widespread age registration system in Malawi may allow workers under 18 to be hired. Child labor is used on family farms where farmers depend on family labor.[69]

Many of the workers in the Malawi tea sector have some degree of vulnerability. Many workers on estates are temporary, casual workers who have no contract.[70] In addition to job insecurity, these workers also lack access to the social benefits such as housing and health care provided to permanent workers.[71] There is some indication that these include migrant workers from Mozambique as well.[72] Work in the tea sector is low-paid for all hired workers. The plucking rate for seasonal/casual workers can be as low as USD .003 (MK 2.29) per kilogram of green leaf plucked.[73]

Case Study: Working Conditions in the Malawi Sugar Sector

With oversight from project partner Solidarity Center, the African Labour Researcher’s Network (ALRN) carried out rapid appraisal field research in Malawi. The rapid appraisal research sought qualitative information on potential risks of human trafficking in a specific supply chains from a variety of expert informants including workers, government officials, organized labor representatives, employers and civil society groups. Expert informant information was used to triangulate information gathered during desk research. The Malawi case study is summarized below and has informed framing of issues throughout this report.

The oil and gas sector represents a source of employment with an estimated 3,000 related jobs in Ghana. According to experts interviewed, average pay rates are relatively high, leading jobs in the sector to be perceived as desirable, but it appears it may contribute to vulnerabilities of workers and local communities in several ways.

First, the booming sector and high number of migrant (both transnational and domestic) workers may contribute to sex trafficking. The U.S. Department of State 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report noted the presence of sex trafficking “in the oil-producing western region.” The scope of sex trafficking in these regions is unknown, but several experts interviewed for this case study, as well as a media scan, confirmed the phenomenon. Some local media reports have noted both Ghanaian victims and victims trafficked from China.

Trafficking has not been authoritatively documented directly among workers in the sector. However, there is a high-level of casualization of workers; it is common practice for workers, particularly workers in “lower-skilled” positions to be hired via a recruiter or other type of employment agent. Field researchers noted that these workers are often from poorer regions in neighboring countries or within Ghana and are unlikely to express any grievances. Workers may be motivated to seek employment through agents because, although jobs in the sector, are seen as generally desirable, the sector overall does not have high employment rates, leaving multiple potential workers for any opening. Further, field researchers found widespread reports that workers recruited via agents are required to pay registration fees, including increased fees to preferential placements. These fees are reportedly paid unofficially or “off-the-books,” potentially leaving workers in debt and unlikely to make any reports of fees paid. While these arrangements do not in themselves represent trafficking, they do flag a vulnerable population of workers, particularly when they are living in isolated and remote regions. Further, these casual employment positions secured through agents may never be legalized, meaning that workers do not receive benefits such as social security. Experts interviewed suggested that transnational migrants recruited through informal mechanisms may be particularly vulnerable. These arrangements were also noted in the construction industries that support the oil and gas sector.

The development of the sector has also displaced local populations, increasing their overall vulnerability. Most oil platforms are off-shore; it has been noted that these platforms are disruptive to local fishing activities. Local fishers are banned from operating near rigs, while, at the same time, the bright lights used on the platform draw fish, leading to lower catch and decreased livelihoods. The sector has also been associated with land acquisition. Case study research found that oil and gas companies typically seek clearance from local community leadership – predominantly chiefs. While the state is required to compensate local people for land acquisition, total amounts paid have reportedly been inadequate, particularly in cases where farmers were not compensated sufficiently for loss of productive land. Local residents are further impacted by environmental degradation such as water, air and light pollution.

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors
ABA Rule of Law Initiative Country Report: Malawi

Endnotes

[1] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Malawi. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mi.html 

[2] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper 

[3] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Malawi. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mi.html 

[4] World Bank. Malawi. 2017. http://data.worldbank.org/country/malawi

[5] World Bank. Malawi: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/malawi/overview 

[6] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Malawi. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016/af/254217.htm

[7] International Trade Centre. List of products at 4 digits level exported by Malawi in 2016 (Mirror). 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1|454||||TOTAL|||4|1|2|2|1||1|1|1

[8] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Malawi. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mi.html 

[9] World Bank. Malawi: Overview. April 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/malawi/overview 

[10] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Malawi. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016/af/254217.htm 

[11] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Malawi. May 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mi.html 

[12] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper 

[13] World Bank. Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines (% of population): Malawi. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.NAHC?locations=MW

[14] World Bank. Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a day (2011 PPP) (% of population): Malawi. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.DDAY?locations=MW

[15] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2016: Malawi. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/fr/MWI.pdf 

[16] World Bank. Net Migration: Malawi. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.NETM?locations=MW  

[17] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: By Destination and Origin. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml 

[18] United Nations. Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2015: By Destination and Origin. 2015. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates15.shtml 

[19] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR Statistics: The World in Numbers. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview 

[20] International Trade Centre. List of products at 4 digits level exported by Malawi in 2016 (Mirror). 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1|454||||TOTAL|||4|1|2|2|1||1|1|1

[21] International Trade Centre. Lit of importing markets for the product exported by Malawi in 2016. 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Country_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1|454||||TOTAL|||2|1|2|2|1||2|1|1

[22] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

[23] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

[24] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

[25] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

[26] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

[27] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Malawi. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/malawi 

[28] U.S Department of State, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. 2016 Investment Climate Statements: Malawi. July 5, 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016/af/254217.htm

[29] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

[30] International Labour Organization (ILO). Ratifications for Malawi. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11200:0::NO::P11200_COUNTRY_ID:103101

[31] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index 2017: Malawi. 2017. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/2017/05/14/fsi-2017-factionalization-and-group-grievance-fuel-rise-in-instability/ 

[32] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2015. http://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/#reports 

[33] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Malawi 2016 Crime and Safety Report. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=19755

[34] World Economic Forum. Global Competitiveness Index: Malawi. 2016-2017. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-index/country-profiles/#economy=MWI

[35] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

[36] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index 2016: Malawi. 2016. https://www.transparency.org/country/MWI 

[37] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Malawi. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/malawi 

[38] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2016: Malawi. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/malawi 

[39] U.S Department of State, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. 2016 Investment Climate Statements: Malawi. July 5, 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016/af/254217.htm

[40] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper

[41] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: International Human Development Indicators. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries 

[42] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: Malawi. March 2017. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/MWI 

[43] World Bank. Country Profile: Malawi. 2015. http://databank.worldbank.org/data/Views/Reports/ReportWidgetCustom.aspx?Report_Name=CountryProfile&Id=b450fd57&tbar=y&dd=y&inf=n&zm=n&country=MWI

[44] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports: Gender Development Index (GDI). 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/en/indicators/137906# 

[45] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Malawi. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=MWI

[46] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper 

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Malawi. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/malawi 

[47] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Malawi. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/malawi 

[48] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper 

[49] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Malawi. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=MWI

[50] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper 

[51] World Economic Forum. Global Gender Gap Report 2016: Malawi. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-gender-gap-report-2016/economies/#economy=MWI

[52] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper 

[53] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper 

[54] U.S Department of State, Bureau of Economic and Business Affairs. 2016 Investment Climate Statements: Malawi. July 5, 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016/af/254217.htm 

[55] Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Development Center. Social Institutions & Gender Index (SIGI): Malawi. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/malawi 

[56] Chinsinga, Blessings. The Political Economy of Land Grabs in Malawi: Investigating the Contribution of Limphasa Sugar Corporation to Rural Development. Journal of Agriculture and Environmental Ethics.  December 2013.  https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10806-013-9445-z

[57] U.S Department of State. 2016 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Malawi. March 3, 2017. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/index.htm#wrapper 

[58] The World Bank. “Reducing the impact of natural disasters in Malawi: Empowering citizens and taking charge.” January 29, 2014. http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2014/01/29/reducing-the-impact-of-natural-disasters-in-malawi-empowering-citizens-and-taking-charge

[59] Centre for Agricultural Research and Development (CARD) and Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources (LUANAR). Farm-Level Economics of Tobacco Production in Malawi. April 2016. https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/economic-and-healthy-policy/farm-level-economics-of-tobacco-production-in-malawi-full-report.pdf

[60] Philip Morris International (PMI). Agricultural Labor Practices (ALP) Program Progress Report 2013. March 30, 2014. https://www.pmi.com/resources/docs/default-source/pmi-sustainability/alp-progress-report-2013.pdf?sfvrsn=f402b0b5_0

[61] Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Centre for Agricultural Research and Development. Farm-Level Economics of Tobacco Production in Malawi. April, 2016. https://www.cancer.org/content/dam/cancer-org/research/economic-and-healthy-policy/farm-level-economics-of-tobacco-production-in-malawi-full-report.pdf

[62] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258813.htm

[63] U.S. Department of Labor. List of Goods Produced with Child Labor or Forced Labor. 2016. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/list-of-goods/

[64] Eldring, Line, Sabata Nakanyane and Malehoko Tshoaedi. Child Labour in the Tobacco Growing Sector in Africa. Fafo. October 2000. http://www.fafo.no/pub/rapp/654/654.pdf

[65] International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC). Internationally Recognised Core Labour Standards in Malawi: Report for the WTO General Council Review of the Trade Policies of Malawi. June 2010.  http://www.ituc-csi.org/IMG/pdf/Microsoft_Word_-_28_May_-_Malawi_CLS_FINAL__2_-20100531120125.pdf 

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