Madagascar Country Overview

Politics

Madagascar is a semi-presidential republic, island nation off the southeast coast of Africa. The current president, Hery Rajanarimampianina, was elected in 2014 in the first national election since the 2009 coup against former president Marc Ravalomanana.[1]

Economy

Madagascar is classified by the World Bank as a low-income country.[2] For 2016, gross domestic product (GDP) growth exceeded the five-year average rate of 2.6 percent and increase to 4.1 percent.[3] It is estimated that 80 percent of the work force is engaged in the informal sector, mainly in commercial and agricultural trades.[4] In Madagascar, 77.15 percent of men and 73.24 percent of women are employed in the agriculture sector.[5] The government provided incentives for investment in export manufacturing through the Law on Free Zone Companies and in the mining sector, which has been the largest driver of economic growth recently, through the Law on Large Scale Mining Investments.[6] The government is in the process of updating legislation in mining and petroleum industries to make them more attractive to foreign investment.[7] The Free Zone includes companies from the manufacturing, agriculture, livestock and fisheries and service enterprises sectors.[8]

Social/Human Development

Madagascar is an ethnically diverse nation with 18 main ethnic groups.[9] Some ethnic groups maintain a caste system.[10] Madagascar faces widespread poverty with limited access to education, health, nutrition and other basic services.[11] One in two children under the age of five suffers from chronic malnutrition, a statistic that is exacerbated by the country’s widened food scarcity in the wake of drought that impacted over 800,000 people in 2016.[12]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2 Watch List

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking and trafficking risk was noted in potentially exported supply chains including mining, fishing and agriculture. Children are vulnerable to sex trafficking associating with formal and informal mining.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Madagascar has negative net migration and the country’s international migrant stock is 32,075. By far, most migrants in Madagascar come from Comoros and France.[13] France is the top destination country.[14] 

According to UNHCR, there is no significant population of refugees or other “persons of concern,” in Madagascar.[15]

Exports and Trade

Madagascar’s top exports in 2016 include vanilla, coffee, nickel, apparel, and fish.[16]

The top importers of all goods from Madagascar include France, United States of America, Germany, China, and Japan.[17]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

The law permits public and private sector workers to establish and join unions but civil servants and maritime workers are provided with separate labor codes.[18] The maritime code does not explicitly provide workers with the right to form a union.[19] The right to collectively bargain is not guaranteed to seafarers nor can workers in export processing zones (EPZs) easily exercise it, although they are provided the right to strike.[20]

Working Conditions

The government has raised the monthly minimum wage to 144,003 ariary (USD 43) for nonagricultural workers and 146,060 ariary (USD 44) for agriculture workers.[21] The Ministry of Labor is responsible for enforcing the minimum wage and working conditions but a lack of personnel and resources limits the ministry’s capacity to do so.[22] There is no enforcement of labor laws in the informal sector and there are regularly reported violations regarding wages, overtime, and occupational safety.[23]

Discrimination

The government prohibits discrimination based on race, gender, religion, political opinion, origin and disability in the workplace.[24] Ethnicity, caste and regional solidarity are often taken into consideration in the process of hiring employees.[25] Although discrimination against women is not particularly prevalent in urban areas, it remains a problem in rural areas where traditional social structures, which disadvantage women, prevail.[26] Women do not face discrimination with regard to employment and access to credit but women are often paid less than men despite performing similar work.[27]

Forced Labor

Although the law prohibits forced labor, the U.S. Department of State has reported that the law is not effectively enforced.[28]

Child Labor

The law establishes the legal minimum age of employment at 15, regulates working conditions, defines the worst forms of child labor and identifies penalties for employers who violate the law.[29] The law prohibits hazardous working occupations and activities for children, but does so inconsistently.[30] Under the constitution, all primary education is tuition-free and compulsory until the age of 16 for all citizens.[31] By the age of 15, 54 percent of girls and 45 percent of boys are out of school.[32]

Civil Society Organizations

Freedom House reports that NGOs and human rights groups are active and their right to freedom of association is generally respected.[33] However, according to the U.S. Department of State, some domestic NGOs report that they have limited capacity to effectively carry out their work and that pro-government political organizations sometimes harassed or attempt to co-opt CSOs.[34]

 

Use of Export Processing Zones (EPZs)

In Madagascar, the Law on Free Zone Companies provides incentives to investors and Free Zone companies are reported to operate under relaxed labor regulations.[35] The U.S. Department of State reported that labor protections under the Free Zone regime are slightly relaxed from the general labor code, as labor contracts vary depending on duration, restrictions on the employment of women during night shifts, and the amount of overtime allowed.[36] In recent years, workers in EPZs were paid by piece rates as opposed to hourly wages which has had a negative impact on the predominantly female workers in the textile sector.[37] A 2015 study of the garment and leather industry conducted by a German foundation found that all the 126 companies investigated in an EPZ had incorporated safety systems into their infrastructure, such as fire exits and extinguishers, but only 11 percent had provided protective equipment for their workers.[38]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Madagascar scores an 84.2 on the Fragile States Index 2016, ranking it 56 out of 178 countries.[39] Madagascar experienced political crisis from 2009 until 2014. In 2006, former president Ravalomanana was elected for a second term but amid protests in 2009, Ravalomanana conceded power to the military who conferred the presidency to the mayor of Antananarivo, Andy Rajoelina.[40] The 2014 election of Rajaonarimampianina marked a return to democratic government, although the National Assembly voted to impeach the president in 2015 for failure to uphold the constitution.[41] A court later dismissed the impeachment attempt.[42]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 2016/2017 scored Madagascar at 3.6 and 3.8 for business costs of crime and violence and business costs of organized crime, respectively.[43] The U.S. Department of State reports that mob violence occurred in 2016, primarily as a result of crime and distrust of the police and the judicial system.[44] Organized crime is not a major issue.[45] 

STATE PERSECUTION

Statelessness is pervasive among the minority Muslim community due to complications regarding citizenship laws.[46] It was reported that those applying for citizenship may be turned away or face bureaucratic obstacles if they are perceived as Muslim.[47] Of the two million Muslims residing in the country, an estimated five percent are impacted by citizenship laws. Statelessness impaired people’s ability to access education and healthcare, and obtain a job or land.[48]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index 2016 scores Madagascar a 26 out of 100, where a zero signals “Highly Corrupt.”[49] Madagascar rankes 123 out of 168 countries and territories.[50] Although President Rajaonarimampianina stated a commitment to reducing corruption, funding for the anticorruption bureau decreased in 2015.[51] According  to the U.S. Department of State, Madagascar has faced challenges in attaining foreign direct investment due to persistent corruption in the government.[52] Corruption is also present in the judiciary.[53]

Government corruption reportedly makes Madagascar “a safe haven for illegal activities and businesses.”[54] Although illegal, the export of precious woods occurred as it was smuggled offshore with little government interference and occasional involvement by officials.[55]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Madagascar ranks 158 out of 188 countries and has a value of 0.512 on UN Human Development Index.[56] When adjusted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.374, a loss of 27 percent due to inequality.[57] The leading migrant sending country is Comoros, which scores a comparatively lower HDI of 0.497, which may explain why migrants choose Madagascar as their destination.[58]

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

It is estimated that 77 percent of the population live in multidimensional poverty while an additional 11.7 percent live near multidimensional poverty.[59] Rural Poverty Portal reported that the Toliara Province in the southwest region of the country has the highest rate of poverty yet most the rural poor are concentrated in the three most densely populated provinces of Antananarivo, Fianaransoa and Toamasina.[60] The World Bank ranks Madagascar as one of the poorest countries in Africa.[61]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

Women participate in the workforce and in education at roughly the same rate as men. The female labor participation rate is 83.8 percent and the male rate is 89.1 percent.[62] The mean years of school for women is 6.7 years compared to 6.1 years for men.[63]

There are no legal restrictions on women’s access to land or non-land assets. However, land acquisition is largely interpreted in terms of customary rather than common law.[64] Women have access to financial services but low literacy rates remain a barrier for women’s access to credit.

LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

Protections for private property are not fully enforced, leaving many farmers without official rights to their land.[65] Foreigners are prohibited from owning land in the country.[66]

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

A drought in 2016 severely impacted crop production in Southern Madagascar, leaving nearly 850,000 people food insecure.[67]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Vanilla

VANILLA OVERVIEW

Madagascar is also the global leader in vanilla exports, growing 80 percent of the world’s vanilla.[68] The vanilla industry in Madagascar employed 80,000 smallholder farmers and 5,000 producers in 2016.[69] The government sets the price for vanilla, and the crop represent a large share of the Malagasy government’s revenue.[70] 80 percent of Malagasy vanilla is grown by smallholder farmers in the northern coastal region of Sava.[71] 

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN VANILLA PRODUCTION

There is indication of child labor in Malagasy vanilla farming.[72] Children often help with pollination work on family farms, reportedly because of their small, dexterous hands.[73] This work cannot be done after school, it must to be done in the morning to be successful.[74] This leads to high levels of truancy during the pollination period. Nearly a third of those working in Madagascar’s vanilla industry are between the ages of 12 and 17. Children as young as ten work on vanilla farms.[75]

After the harvest season, vanilla farmers take out loans from middlemen (the same men that will buy their crops in the summer) known as “flower contracts.”[76] These flower contracts use the prospective vanilla harvest price and farmers plants as collateral. Because of price volatility, farmers frequently sell their crop during harvest season for a lower price than they took out their loan with, trapping farmers in debt. Farmers may have to sell their homes, livestock or land to pay back these loans. In the most severe cases, children of vanilla farmers may be vulnerable to trafficking in other areas as a means for parents to pay back their loans.[77]

Apparel

APPAREL OVERVIEW

Madagascar is one of the leading exporters of apparel from sub-Saharan Africa. After the passage of the America Growth and Opportunity Act in 2000, the size of the country’s apparel export sector nearly tripled in four years. In 2009, the U.S. removed Madagascar’s American Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) status following the coup.[78] Madagascar became re-eligible for AGOA in 2014 and the volume of exports has increased again. The EU is the primary source of apparel from Madagascar due to the Everything but Arms preferential trade program.[79] The apparel manufacturing sector is the primary source of industrial jobs in the country, with nearly 100,000 workers in 90 export factories.[80] Madagascar is competitive in part because average wages are lower than peer countries such as Ethiopia, Mauritius and Kenya.[81]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN APPAREL

According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), Madagascar has adopted national legislation to protect workers from abusive piece-rate earnings systems[82] – which had been previously identified as an area of concern.[83] As in other apparel manufacturing sectors, the workforce is heavily female and unskilled. Madagascar is competitive in part because wages are lower than peer countries such as Ethiopia, Mauritius and Kenya.[84]

Media reporting has noted that following suspension of Madagascar’s AGOA status in 2009, and the subsequent closure of factories, women previously employed in the sector were vulnerable to being trafficked to the Middle East and Gulf region.[85]

Fish/Seafood

FISH/SEAFOOD OVERVIEW

The Madagascar fisheries sector includes both artisanal and industrial fishing activities. Shrimp, tuna, bill-fish and sharks (as bycatch) are the major export species from Madagascar’s fishery sector.[86] The current national fishery production is estimated to be around 130,000 metric tons per year, including catches of tuna and tuna-like species by the Distant Water Fleet Nation (DWFN) in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ).[87]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN FISH/SEAFOOD

Large Chinese, Thai, and South Korean fishing vessels fish, sometimes illegally, in the deep waters surrounding Madagascar, leading to massive decreases in fish populations and both environmental and economic loss.[88] Foreign commercial vessels that have been associated with human trafficking operate illegally in Madagascar’s waters.[89]

The 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report states that there is forced child labor in the fishing industry in Madagascar.[90]

Gemstones other than Diamonds

GEMSTONES OVERVIEW

Within the past 20 years, Madagascar has emerged as a major player in the international trade of precious colored gemstones. Most notably, in 2002 an estimated 50 percent of the world’s sapphires came from Madagascar. Production still relies heavily on artisanal miners, as formalized and large-scale mining of sapphires has been hampered by corruption, government bureaucracy, start-up risks, and other factors.[91] Madagascar’s rubies are found mostly in alluvial deposits, which can be accessed without expensive equipment.[92]

The government has considered formal efforts to regulate artisanal miners, but revisions to the 1999 mining code were placed on hold in June 2017.[93] In some cases, the government removed artisanal miners from gem fields with force.[94]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN GEMSTONE PRODUCTION

The U.S. Department of Labor’s 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor notes that sapphires are mined with child labor in Madagascar. Children are used to see if sapphires are present in small holes, and they are particularly susceptible to injuries caused by falling shards and rocks, collapsing pits, and underground fires.[95]

A recent rush to mine sapphire deposits is nearly entirely illegal and without any government oversight.[96] A media report notes that a significant portion of these sapphires are smuggled to Sri Lanka.[97] The sapphire deposits have caused massive migration to the rainforests of eastern Madagascar for informal mining operations. Thousands of acres of trees have been cut down. As the population has increased rapidly, the cost of food staples has reportedly increased over 50 percent.[98] Lack of sanitation led to a typhoid outbreak in the mining camps in 2016.[99] The environmental consequences of the expanding mining could affect thousands of rare species of plants and animals.[100]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[2] World Bank. Madagascar Data. http://data.worldbank.org/country/madagascar

[3] World Bank. Madagascar Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/madagascar/overview

[4] U.S. Department of State. Climate Investment Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=254215#wrapper

[5] World Bank. Madagascar: Social Protection & Labor. http://data.worldbank.org/topic/social-protection-and-labor?locations=MG

[6] U.S. Department of State. Climate Investment Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=254215#wrapper

[7] U.S. Department of State. Climate Investment Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=254215#wrapper

[8] U.S. Department of State. Climate Investment Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=254215#wrapper

[9] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ma.html

[10] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ma.html

[11] World Bank. Country Overview. Madagascar. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/madagascar/overview

[12] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. “Crop losses in southern Madagascar mean severe hunger likely to persist into 2017.” November 26, 2016. http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/449030/icode/

[13] International Office of Migration. http://www.iom.int/world-migration#source

[14] International Office of Migration. http://www.iom.int/world-migration#source

[15] UNHCR. Persons of Concern Statistics. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/persons_of_concern

[16] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org

[17] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org

[18] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[19] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[20] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[21] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[22] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[23] U.S. Department of State. Climate Investment Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=254215#wrapper

[24] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[25] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[26] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[27] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[28] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[29] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[30] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[31] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[32] Education and Policy Data Center. Out of School Children. 2009. http://www.epdc.org/sites/default/files/documents/Madagascar_OOSC_profile.pdf

[33] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar

[34] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[35] U.S. Department of State. Climate Investment Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=254215#wrapper

[36] U.S. Department of State. Climate Investment Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=254215#wrapper

[37] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[38] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[39] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index. 2016. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/data/

[40] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ma.html

[41] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar

[42] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar

[43] The World Economic Forum. Global Competitiveness Report. 2016-2017. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GCR2016-2017/05FullReport/TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2016-2017_FINAL.pdf

[44] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[45] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Crime and Safety Report. Madagascar. 2016. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=19735

[46] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[47] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[48] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265484.pdf

[49] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index. 2016. https://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016

[50] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar

[51] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar

[52] U.S. Department of State. Climate Investment Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm?year=2016&dlid=254215#wrapper

[53] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar

[54] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Crime and Safety Report. Madagascar. 2016. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=19735

[55] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar        

[56] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Explanatory Note. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/MDG.pdf

[57] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Explanatory Note. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/MDG.pdf

[58] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Explanatory Note. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/COM.pdf

[59] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Reports: Madagascar. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/MDG

[60] Rural poverty Portal. Rural poverty in Madagascar. http://www.ruralpovertyportal.org/web/rural-poverty-portal/country/home/tags/madagascar

[61] World Bank. Madagascar Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/madagascar/overview

[62] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Statistical Annex. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2016_statistical_annex.pdf

[63] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Statistical Annex. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr_2016_statistical_annex.pdf

[64] Social Institutions and Gender Index. http://www.genderindex.org/country/madagascar

[65] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar

[66] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/madagascar

[67] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. “Crop losses in southern Madagascar mean severe hunger likely to persist into 2017.” November 26, 2016. http://www.fao.org/news/story/en/item/449030/icode/

[68] Hjerl Hansen, Julie; Lykke Lind, Peter; et al. “The Hidden Cost of Vanilla: Child Labour and Debt Spirals.” 2016.  Danwatch. https://www.danwatch.dk/en/undersogelse/thehiddencostofvanilla/

[69] Hjerl Hansen, Julie; Lykke Lind, Peter; et al. “The Hidden Cost of Vanilla: Child Labour and Debt Spirals.” 2016.  Danwatch. https://www.danwatch.dk/en/undersogelse/thehiddencostofvanilla/

[70] De La Cruz Median, Javier; Rodriguez Jimenes, Guadalupe; Garcia, Hugo; et al. Vanilla: Post Harvest Operations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2009 http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/inpho/docs/Post_Harvest_Compendium_-_Vanilla.pdf

[71] De La Cruz Median, Javier; Rodriguez Jimenes, Guadalupe; Garcia, Hugo; et al. Vanilla: Post Harvest Operations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2009 http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/inpho/docs/Post_Harvest_Compendium_-_Vanilla.pdf

[72] United States Department of Labor: Bureau of International Labor Affairs. “Child and Forced Labor Reports: Madagascar.” 2015. https://www.dol.gov/agencies/ilab/resources/reports/child-labor/madagascar

[73] De La Cruz Median, Javier; Rodriguez Jimenes, Guadalupe; Garcia, Hugo; et al. Vanilla: Post Harvest Operations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2009 http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/inpho/docs/Post_Harvest_Compendium_-_Vanilla.pdf

[74] De La Cruz Median, Javier; Rodriguez Jimenes, Guadalupe; Garcia, Hugo; et al. Vanilla: Post Harvest Operations. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2009 http://www.fao.org/fileadmin/user_upload/inpho/docs/Post_Harvest_Compendium_-_Vanilla.pdf

[75] Hjerl Hansen, Julie; Lykke Lind, Peter; et al. “The Hidden Cost of Vanilla: Child Labour and Debt Spirals.” 2016.  Danwatch. https://www.danwatch.dk/en/undersogelse/thehiddencostofvanilla/

[76] Hjerl Hansen, Julie; Lykke Lind, Peter; et al. “The Hidden Cost of Vanilla: Child Labour and Debt Spirals.” 2016.  Danwatch. https://www.danwatch.dk/en/undersogelse/thehiddencostofvanilla/

[77] Hjerl Hansen, Julie; Lykke Lind, Peter; et al. “The Hidden Cost of Vanilla: Child Labour and Debt Spirals.” 2016.  Danwatch. https://www.danwatch.dk/en/undersogelse/thehiddencostofvanilla/

[78] De Coster, Jozef. Madagascar back on the apparel sourcing radar. Just Style. November 22, 2016. https://www.just-style.com/analysis/madagascar-back-on-the-apparel-sourcing-radar_id129356.aspx

[79] De Coster, Jozef. Madagascar back on the apparel sourcing radar. Just Style. November 22, 2016. https://www.just-style.com/analysis/madagascar-back-on-the-apparel-sourcing-radar_id129356.aspx

[80] De Coster, Jozef. Madagascar back on the apparel sourcing radar. Just Style. November 22, 2016. https://www.just-style.com/analysis/madagascar-back-on-the-apparel-sourcing-radar_id129356.aspx

[81] De Coster, Jozef. Madagascar back on the apparel sourcing radar. Just Style. November 22, 2016. https://www.just-style.com/analysis/madagascar-back-on-the-apparel-sourcing-radar_id129356.aspx

[82] ILO. Wages and Working Hours in the Textiles, Clothing, Leather and Footwear Industries. 2014. http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_dialogue/@sector/documents/publication/wcms_300463.pdf

[83] Clean Clothes Campain. The Suffering Zone:  Findings from Madagascar.  September 1, 2002. https://archive.cleanclothes.org/resources/national-ccc/1096-the-suffering-zone-findings-from-madagascar.html

[84] De Coster, Jozef. Madagascar back on the apparel sourcing radar. Just Style. November 22, 2016. https://www.just-style.com/analysis/madagascar-back-on-the-apparel-sourcing-radar_id129356.aspx

[85] Ross, Aaron. “Why are Thousands of Malagasy Women Being Trafficked to Abusive Jobs in the Middle East?” April 15, 2014. https://www.thenation.com/article/why-are-thousands-malagasy-women-being-trafficked-abusive-jobs-middle-east/

[86] Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Fishery and Aquaculture Profile Page. Madagascar. http://www.fao.org/fishery/facp/MDG/en

[87] Breuil, Christophe. Grima, Damien. Baseline Report Madagascar. SmartFish Programme of the Indian Ocean Commission. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2014.

[88] Chinhuru, Wonder.  “Madagascar Fisheries Ravaged by Foreign Plunder – Equal Times.” March 15, 2013. https://www.equaltimes.org/madagascar-fisheries-ravaged-by?lang=en#.WXrNV4jytPZ

[89] Chinhuru, Wonder. “Madagascar Fisheries Ravaged by Foreign Plunder – Equal Times.” March 13, 2015. https://www.equaltimes.org/madagascar-fisheries-ravaged-by?lang=en#.WWaMbIjytEY

Hodal, Kate. “Thai fishing industry: abuses continue in unpoliced waters, Greenpeace.” December 15, 2016.  claimshttps://www.theguardian.com/global-development/2016/dec/15/thai-fishing-industry-human-rights-abuses-continue-in-unpoliced-waters-greenpeace-claims

[90] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/countries/2016/258812.htm

[91] Tilghman, Laura; Baker, Merrill; Dickinson deLeon, Sally.  Artisanal Sapphire Mining in Madagascar: Environmental and Social Aspects. 2005. http://www.uvm.edu/rsenr/gemecology/assets/Tilghman_et_al_Madagascar_2005.pdf

[92] Duffy, Rosaleen. Gemstone Mining in Madagascar: transnational networks, criminalisation and global integration. https://www.sussex.ac.uk/webteam/gateway/file.php?name=duffy-sapphires1&site=12

[93] Reuters, “Madagascar’s president says no plans to change mining code,” June 14, 2017. http://af.reuters.com/article/topNews/idAFKBN1951NJ-OZATP.

[94] The World Weekly. Risking it all in Madagascar’s sapphire trade. February 9, 2016. https://www.theworldweekly.com/reader/view/magazine/2016-02-09/risking-it-all-in-madagascars-sapphire-trade/6688/

[95] The Guardian. “’Sapphire rush’ threatens rainforests of Madagascar.” April 2, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/02/sapphire-rush-threatens-rainforests-of-madagascar

Brilliant Earth. “Sapphire and Colored Gemstone Issues: Labor.” https://www.brilliantearth.com/sapphire-issues-labor/?utm_expid=1332916-281._WC2PT4rTnCrmQje-Lvlkg.0&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F

[96] The Guardian. “’Sapphire rush’ threatens rainforests of Madagascar.” April 2, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/02/sapphire-rush-threatens-rainforests-of-madagascar

[97] “Madagascar faces crisis in sapphire rush.” April 3, 2017. http://www.sbs.com.au/news/article/2017/04/03/madagascar-faces-crisis-sapphire-rush

[98] Associated Press. “Madagascar forest overwhelmed by thousands seeking sapphires” April 2, 2017. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/04/02/madagascar-forest-overwhelmed-by-thousands-seeking-sapphires.html

[99] Associated Press. “Madagascar forest overwhelmed by thousands seeking sapphires” April 2, 2017. http://www.foxnews.com/world/2017/04/02/madagascar-forest-overwhelmed-by-thousands-seeking-sapphires.html

[100] The Guardian. “’Sapphire rush’ threatens rainforests of Madagascar.” April 2, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2017/apr/02/sapphire-rush-threatens-rainforests-of-madagascar

Brilliant Earth. “Sapphire and Colored Gemstone Issues: Labor.” https://www.brilliantearth.com/sapphire-issues-labor/?utm_expid=1332916-281._WC2PT4rTnCrmQje-Lvlkg.0&utm_referrer=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F