Kenya Country Overview

Politics

The Kenyan government is a three-branch republic. The executive branch is led by President Uhuru Kenyatta, who narrowly won the 2013 election, the first election held under a newly adopted constitution, which created a new system of local governance which hinges on 47 county governments. While these elections were generally considered to be free and fair, some civil society groups raised questions about perceived irregularities.[1] The second election under the new constitution, held in August 2017, resulted in the re-election of Kenyatta, but then was subsequently annulled by the Kenyan Supreme Court, with a re-vote scheduled for October 2017.

The terrorist group Al-Shabaab carried out attacks in Kenya in 2016 and 2017.[2] According to human rights groups, state anti-terrorism activities have been involved “human rights violations, including extrajudicial executions, enforced disappearances and torture.”[3]

Corruption is reportedly endemic, with the state anti-corruption commission estimating that nearly a third of GDP is lost to corruption.[4]

Kenya has a bicameral legislative branch which is divided between the senate and the national assembly. The judicial system in Kenya is mixed, with English common law, Islamic law, and customary law all being recognized.[5]

 

Economy

The World Bank classifies Kenya as a lower middle income country.[6] According to the UN, 36 percent of the population lives in multidimensional poverty despite the country being the epicenter of East African trade.[7] The unemployment rate was estimated to be 40 percent in 2013. Agricultural production continues to be the largest sector of the Kenyan economy, accounting for roughly 37 percent of GDP annually. Over 75 percent of the sector is accounted for by small, non-industrial farming operations, which are especially vulnerable to droughts and climate change.[8] The Kenyan government has successfully been courting foreign investors, and certain sectors of the economy are beginning to support a burgeoning middle-class in Kenya.[9]

Social/Human Development

Kenya’s Human Development Index (HDI) value for 2015 was 0.555, positioning it at 146 out of 188 countries and territories.[10] The country’s population has been growing rapidly in recent years, and over 40 percent of Kenyans are between the ages of 0-14.[11]

Kenya has a population of over 46 million, and is made up of eight main ethnic groups: Kikuyu (22 percent), Luhya (14 percent), Luo (13 percent), Kalenjin (12 percent), Kamba (11 percent), Kisii (6 percent), Meru (6 percent), and other Africans (15 percent). Non-Africans (Asian, European, and Arab) make up approximately 1 percent of the Kenyan population.  

Kenya has a large population of refugees, primarily from Somalia. The government announced its intention to close the largest refugee camp in 2016 and there have been concerns about forced repatriation.[12]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking and trafficking risk was noted in potentially exported supply chains including fishing, cattle herding, and agriculture (including tobacco).

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Kenya experiences negative net migration at a rate of -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population, placing it 114th in the world in terms of migration rates.[13] Kenya’s stability in comparison to some of its regional neighbors has made it a destination for refugees and for low-skilled workers. There were an estimated 514,867 persons of concern in Kenya at the end of 2015, a majority of whom were refugees. About 20,000 people were considered stateless.[14] The conflict in neighboring Somalia has seen around 400,000 refugees cross the border into Kenya.[15]

Most out-migration has been attributed to the loss of highly skilled workers. The top migration destinations are the United Kingdom, the United States, Uganda, and Canada.[16]

 

Exports and Trade

The top exported products from Kenya in 2016 were tea, coffee, cut flowers, vegetables, and apparel.[17]

The top importers of goods from Kenya in 2014 were the United States, Netherlands, Uganda, Pakistan, and the United Kingdom.[18]

Kenya was the 85th largest supplier of goods to the United States in 2015. Apparel and coffee were the United States’ largest imports from Kenya.[19]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

Kenyan labor law allows for workers to form unions and bargain collectively with their employers. Any group of laborers of seven or more is permitted to apply for union registration, and if the application is denied there is a legal appeals process for them to follow. These rights also apply within Kenya’s Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs). Members of the police, armed forces, and prison employees are barred from forming unions, striking, or bargaining collectively. Employees working in sectors which are considered to provide “essential services” are also barred from striking. While the government of Kenya is generally supportive of workers’ rights to bargain collectively, unionize, and strike, the enforcement of applicable laws is reportedly inconsistent, largely due to the insufficient enforcement capabilities of the relevant governmental authorities. Importantly, migrant workers often lack the ability to organize or the knowledge of their right to do so. Domestic workers are often subject to exclusion from exercising such rights. Some employers have taken to employing rotating contract workers to fill permanent positions to circumnavigate laws ensuring the ability of workers to organize and bargain collectively.[20]

Working Conditions

Kenyan law provides that the minimum wages for a general laborer is to be KES 10,954 (USD 110) per month or KES 17,404 (USD 170) per month for skilled laborers. For unskilled agricultural workers, the minimum wage is KES 6,780 (USD 68) excluding housing allowances. The law limits the workweek for general laborers to 52 hours per week, 60 for those working at nighttime. It has been reported that these laws are routinely violated by employers. Workers in the construction sector, those working in hotels, and those working in the EPZs are reported to be especially vulnerable to such abuses.[21] Agricultural sector have no limits on the time they are legally permitted to work per week. Regulations surrounding unsafe work practices, including the right for workers to remove themselves from dangerous or hazardous working conditions, were not adequately enforced and penalties were not sufficient to deter violations. Also, while the Kenyan government has mandated that larger factories have health and safety committees employed on site (which many of them do), over 75 percent of the Kenyan workforce is employed in the informal sector and therefore much less likely to benefit from such protections.[22]

Discrimination

The law prohibits discrimination in employment and occupation based on grounds of race, color, sex, age, religion, political or other opinion, nationality, ethnic or social origin, disability, language, pregnancy, mental status, or HIV status. The law does not explicitly prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation or gender identity. Women earn, on average, two-thirds of the salaries of their male counterparts. It is also reported that migrant workers are routinely discriminated against in terms of hiring.[23]

Forced Labor

Kenyan law prohibits all forms of forced labor, and according to the U.S. Department of State, authorities have made moderate advances in terms of eliminating forced labor practices from the nationwide economy.[24] However, penalties and enforcement capabilities are reportedly insufficient to deter violations.[25] Kenyan law also stipulates that all able bodied men may be legally conscripted by the government to work for up to 60 days a year in efforts to conserve and/or protect natural resources. Forced prison labor is also legal under Kenyan labor laws.[26]

Child Labor

Kenyan labor laws set the minimum age for work at 16 and the minimum age for hazardous work at 18. In the informal sector in particular, monitoring is difficult and enforcement is reportedly insufficient.[27] It was reported in 2009 that three million children between the ages of 5 and 14 were employed in the informal sectors of the economy (33 percent of that age group), notably in agriculture, mining and fishing in rural areas and informal vending in urban areas. Children were also reportedly exploited at high rates in domestic labor.[28]

Civil Society Organizations

Human rights groups have noted ongoing intimidation of journalists and other members of civil society,[29] although overall, non-governmental human rights groups are reportedly allowed to operate freely in the country.[30] Human rights workers in more rural areas have reported harassment from county-level officials and security forces. There have also been occasional reports that human rights workers were harassed or intimidated by state authorities and security forces.[31]

Immigration Policies Limiting the Employment Options or Movement of Migrants

Somali refugees and migrants suffered abuse at the hands of state security forces, and were subject to movement limitations and discrimination.[32]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

 [33]

Use of Export Processing Zones (EPZs)

At the end of 2014, there were 52 Export Processing Zones (EPZs) in Kenya, accounting for roughly 5 percent of the country’s exports. The majority of companies operating in EEZs are foreign-owned, or joint ventures between Kenyan nationals and foreign investors.[34] It has been reported that labor violations are prevalent in the EEZs, including the substitution of contract workers in full-time positions, mandatory overtime work, and “routine” health and safety violations. The Ministry of Labor’s Directorate of Occupational Health and Safety Services is barred from conducting inspections in EPZs.[35]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Kenya scores a 98.3 in the 2016 Fragile States Index (FSI), placing it firmly in the “alert” category and ranking the country 20th out of 178. The FSI scale goes from 0 (indicating a “sustainable” political system), to 120 (indicating a political system on “high alert”).[36]

Human rights groups report little progress on accountability for violence following the 2007 elections that killed over 1,000 people and displaced about 650,000.[37]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The U.S. Department of State rates the crime threat in Kenya as “Critical.”[38] According to the UNODC, Kenya had a homicide rate of 6.4 in 2012, lower than the average for Africa. Al-Shabaab continued to carry out attacks in Kenya in 2016.[39]

STATE PERSECUTION

Refugees in Kenya have a precarious status within the country. In 2016, the government revoked the refugee status of Somalis in Kenya and announced its intention to close the largest refugee camp, citing security concerns.[40] It has been reported that refugees were blamed publicly by government officials for security challenges.[41] Human rights groups expressed concern that this would be tantamount to forced repatriation in violation of international law. The Department of Refugee Affairs was closed and replaced with the Refugee Affairs Secretariat, which has not been established by law.[42]

Human Rights Watch reports that state security forces targeted Muslims and ethnic Somalis in anti-terrorism activities in 2016, raiding communities and inflicting violence and extortion on residents. Some residents were detained without charges beyond the length of time allowed by law.[43]

Abuses of those within the Kenyan LGBTQ community by security forces was reported to be widespread. This abuse usually takes the form of arbitrary detention, physical and sexual abuse while in detention, and violence. State security forces are often able to act with impunity, and there are reports of police blackmailing LGBTQ individuals and others within marginalized communities.[44]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

Corruption is reportedly endemic, with the state anti-corruption commission estimated that nearly a third of GDP is lost to corruption.[45] The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scores Kenya as a 26 out of 100, where 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and 100 signals “Very Clean”. Kenya ranks 145 out of 176 on that index.[46] The World Economic Forum rates corruption in Kenya as a 17.8 on a 20-point scale, making it far and away the most problematic factor for doing business in the country.[47]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Kenya’s HDI value for 2015 was 0.555, positioning it at 146 out of 188 countries and territories. When adjusted for inequality, Kenya’s HDI value falls to 0.391.[48] Despite the poverty, inequality, and low levels of development which continue to affect large portions of the Kenyan population, the country has maintained GDP growth of around 6 percent in the past two years. This growth is primarily attributed to a healthy services sector, a growing middle-class, and increased public investment in energy and transportation.[49]

 
LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

The United Nations Development Programme states that 36 percent of the Kenyan population is living in multidimensional poverty, with an additional 32 percent living near that line.[50] The main factors which contribute to the endemic poverty and inequality in Kenya is the widespread participation in the agricultural sector (around 75 percent of Kenyans work in agriculture at least part-time), lack of adequate infrastructure, and lack of a diversified formal economy with low barriers to entry.[51]

 
DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

While the Kenyan constitution provides for equal rights for men and women, gender-based discrimination remains a major problem within the country. Women only hold six percent of land deeds in the entire country (the majority of which are jointly held), and accounted for only seven percent of formally accessed credit in the country. The justice system and community-based customary systems of law tend to discriminate against women. Rape and other forms of sexual violence are criminalized, but enforcement is reportedly adequate. One estimate referenced in the U.S. Department of State’s 2016 report on human rights in Kenya states that as many as 92 percent of cases involving sexual violence go unreported to police.[52] In rural areas, sexual violence cases are often settled by community arbitration mechanisms.[53]

Women and girls faced serious sexual violence following the 2007 elections.[54]

 
LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

According to Amnesty International, “families living in informal settlements and marginalized communities continued to be forcibly evicted in the context of large infrastructure development projects [in 2016].”[55] For example, families living in an informal settlement located at the planned site of an internationally-funded road were attacked by armed parties and police who threatened to shoot resisters. The Kenya Forest Service reportedly burned houses of indigenous people in the forest, and some indigenous forest residents were arrested for being present on their traditional land.[56]

 
ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

The main environmental risk factors in Kenya are water quality, drought and climate-change related desertification.[57] Drought and desertification have a particularly adverse effect on food  and water security and livelihoods of herders and farmers.[58]

Drought has a particularly adverse effect on food and water security and the livelihoods of herders and farmers.

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Coffee

COFFEE OVERVIEW

Coffee in Kenya is produced on both large estates and on small-holder farms. The proportion of smallholder farms has increased as the large tracts of land needed for estate production have been subsumed by housing developments around Nairobi.[59] Coffee produced by small farmers is processed at cooperative mills, while estates tend to have their own mills. Most coffee is sold through auctions at the Nairobi Coffee Exchange.[60] Production is nearly exclusively Arabica beans.[61] Germany is the largest buyer of coffee from Kenya.[62]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN COFFEE

The U.S. Department of Labor’s 2016 List of Goods Made with Forced Labor and Child Labor indicates that coffee is produced with child labor in Kenya.[63] Oxfam estimates that one third of coffee harvesters in Kenya are under 15.[64] Interestingly, an ILO report notes that where child labor exists in the Kenyan coffee sector, it is actually more likely to be present on commercial plantations than on smallholder farms. The risk is particularly high on commercial estates that use piece-rate or quota requirements for adult workers, which can incentivize those workers to involve their children.[65] 

A 2008 ILO study of coffee plantations in Kenya found that over 20 percent of hired labor on estates was casual or part-time, as a function both of unpredictable harvest needs, as well as a means to avoid labor laws that required benefits for full-time workers.[66] A 2002 report from the International Labor Rights Forum cited widespread abuse and harassment of female plantation workers in Kenya, including rape and physical assault by supervisors.[67]

Tea

TEA OVERVIEW

Kenya is the top producer of black tea by volume and tea is critical to the Kenyan economy as the top agricultural export by value. About 600,000 smallholder households are engaged in tea production and 150,000 people work on commercial estates. Over half of tea is grown on small farms. Smallholders pick leaves and then leaves are processed at local factories before being graded. Tea is auctioned at the Mombasa Tea Auction Centre. Estate-produced tea is exported directly to processing facilities where it is blended with tea leaves from other global sources.[68] Pickers on farms are reportedly paid by weight of leaves harvested.[69]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN TEA PRODUCTION

According to the U.S. Department of Labor’s 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor, tea is produced using child labor in Kenya.[70] Children make up an estimated 15 percent of all tea sector workers in Kenya.[71]

The Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH) reports that in Kenya, small-scale producers do not earn a living wage themselves, making it nearly impossible for them to pay living wages to hired workers. Low earnings, in combination with labor-intensive harvesting peaks may also incentivize reliance on unpaid family labor, including child labor.[72] Hired workers in several countries, including Kenya, are paid a piece-rate.[73]

Apparel

APPAREL OVERVIEW

Kenya has been a key beneficiary of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), with its apparel sector increasing in value from about USD 8.5 million in 2002 to USD 332 million in 2014. The majority of export firms have a “U.S. dominant orientation,” meaning that the U.S. receives at least 80 percent of their exported product.[74] Nearly 38,000 workers were employed in in the EPZs in apparel production in 2014.[75] Thousands of apparel companies operate in Kenya, including 170 medium and large companies, and over 70,000 small companies.[76] Labor is a key unfixed cost and seen as an opportunity to make up for high costs of electricity and imported fabric.[77]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN APPAREL

Twenty-one apparel companies operate in Kenya’s EPZ, where labor violations are reportedly prevalent. The Ministry of Labor’s Directorate of Occupational Health and Safety Services is barred from conducting inspections in EPZs.[78] Research has found that the use of sub-contracted labor among local/domestic workers is common in Kenya.[79]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[2] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[3] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[4] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[5] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Kenya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html

[6] World Bank. Kenya Overview.  http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/kenya/overview

[7] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Reports: Kenya. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/KEN

[8] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Kenya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html

[9] World Bank. Kenya Overview.  http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/kenya/overview

[10] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Reports: Kenya. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/KEN

[11] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Kenya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html

[12] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[13] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Kenya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html

[14] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. UNHCR Population Statistics Database. 2017. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview –.

[15] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Kenya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html

[16] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). UNHCR Statistics: The World in Numbers. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview 

[17] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[18] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. www.trademap.org.

[19] Office of the United States Trade Representative. Kenya. https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/east-africa/kenya

[20] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[21] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[22] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[23] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[24] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[25] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[26] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[27] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[28] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[29] Amnesty International. Kenya 2016/17. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[30] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[31] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[32] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[33] International Labour Organization (ILO). Ratifications for Kenya. 2016. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11200:0::NO::P11200_COUNTRY_ID:103315

[34] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statements for 2016: Kenya. 2016.  https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/2016investmentclimatestatements/index.htm

[35] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[36] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index. 2016. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/

[37] Human Rights Watch. Country Chapters: Kenya. 2016.  https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/kenya

[38] U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Diplomatic Security. Kenya 2017 Crime and Safety Report. 2017. https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21731

[39] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[40] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[41] Human Rights Watch. World Report: Kenya. 2016. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/kenya

[42] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[43] Human Rights Watch. World Report: Kenya. 2016. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/kenya

[44] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[45] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[46] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index 2016. 2016. www.transparency.org.

[47] World Economic Forum. The Global Competitiveness Report 2015 – 2016. 2016. http://reports.weforum.org/global-competitiveness-report-2015-2016/

[48] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Reports: Kenya. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/KEN

[49] World Bank. Kenya Overview.  http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/kenya/overview

[50] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Reports: Kenya. http://hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/KEN

[51] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Kenya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html

[52] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[53] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[54] Human Rights Watch. World Report: Kenya. 2016. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/kenya

[55] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[56] Amnesty International. Kenya Country Report. 2016.  https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/kenya/report-kenya/

[57] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Kenya. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ke.html

[58] World Bank. Kenya: Agricultural Sector Risk Assessment. November, 2015. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/23350/Kenya000Agricu0ctor0risk0assessment.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

[59] USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Kenya Coffee Annual. 2016. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Coffee%20Annual_Nairobi_Kenya_5-13-2016.pdf

[60] USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Kenya Coffee Annual. 2016. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Coffee%20Annual_Nairobi_Kenya_5-13-2016.pdf

[61] USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Kenya Coffee Annual. 2016. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Coffee%20Annual_Nairobi_Kenya_5-13-2016.pdf

[62] USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. Kenya Coffee Annual. 2016. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/Coffee%20Annual_Nairobi_Kenya_5-13-2016.pdf

[63] U.S. Department of Labor. 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. 2016.  https://www.dol.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ilab/reports/child-labor/findings/TVPRA_Report2016.pdf

[64] Oxfam. The Coffee Market: A Background Study. 2002. https://www.oxfamamerica.org/static/media/files/mugged-full-report.pdf

[65] Mueithi, Leopold. International Labour Organization. Coffee in Kenya: Some challenges for decent work. 2008. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ba34/dc1f9d644d2d627a3f7647f0cf227014c9e4.pdf

[66] Mueithi, Leopold. International Labour Organization. Coffee in Kenya: Some challenges for decent work. 2008. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/ba34/dc1f9d644d2d627a3f7647f0cf227014c9e4.pdf

[67] International Labor Rights Forum (ILRF). Violence Against Women in the Workplace in Kenya: Assessment of Workplace Sexual Harassment in the Commercial Agriculture and Textile Manufacturing Sectors in Kenya. May 2002. http://www.laborrights.org/sites/default/files/publications-and-resources/Kenya.pdf

[68] USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. The Word’s Largest Black Tea Exporter. 2013. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/The%20World’s%20Largest%20Black%20Tea%20Exporter%20_Nairobi_Kenya_10-31-2013.pdf

[69] USDA Foreign Agricultural Service. The Word’s Largest Black Tea Exporter. 2013. https://gain.fas.usda.gov/Recent%20GAIN%20Publications/The%20World’s%20Largest%20Black%20Tea%20Exporter%20_Nairobi_Kenya_10-31-2013.pdf

[70] U.S. Department of Labor. Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB). 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. 2016. https://www.dol.gov/ilab/reports/child-labor/list-of-goods/

[71] Bergman, Esmee, Adrian de Groot Ruiz, and Vincent Fobelets. Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH) and True Price. The True Price of Tea from Kenya. 2016. http://trueprice.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/TP-Tea.pdf

[72] Bergman, Esmee, Adrian de Groot Ruiz, and Vincent Fobelets. Sustainable Trade Initiative (IDH) and True Price. The True Price of Tea from Kenya. 2016. http://trueprice.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/04/TP-Tea.pdf

[73] van der Wal, Sanne. SOMO. Sustainability Issues in the Tea Sector. March 23, 2017. https://www.somo.nl/sustainability-issues-in-the-tea-sector/.

[74] World Bank Group. Republic of Kenya. Kenya Apparel and Textile Industry. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/22782/Kenya0apparel00tegy0and0action0plan.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y

[75] World Bank Group. Republic of Kenya. Kenya Apparel and Textile Industry. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/22782/Kenya0apparel00tegy0and0action0plan.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y

[76] World Bank Group. Republic of Kenya. Kenya Apparel and Textile Industry. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/22782/Kenya0apparel00tegy0and0action0plan.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y

[77] World Bank Group. Republic of Kenya. Kenya Apparel and Textile Industry. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/22782/Kenya0apparel00tegy0and0action0plan.pdf?sequence=5&isAllowed=y

[78] U.S. Department of State. Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2016: Kenya. 2016. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper

[79] BSR. Women’s Economic Empowerment in Sub-Saharan Africa: Recommendations for the Apparel Sector. March 2017. https://www.bsr.org/reports/BSR_Womens_Empowerment_Africa_Apparel_Brief.pdf