Trafficking Risk in Sub-Saharan African Supply Chains

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Chad Country Overview

Politics

Chad is a presidential republic in central Africa. In 2016, President Idriss Deby was reelected to his fifth term in office in an election that was neither free nor fair.[1] The 2018 constitution removed the position of prime minister, which effectively placed the president as the head of the government. While the new constitution reinstated presidential term limits, these limits will not take effect immediately, and President Deby will potentially be able to serve until 2033. The next presidential elections are scheduled for 2021.[2]

The terrorist group Boko Haram has been operating within Chad, and the government imposed a state of emergency in the Lake Chad region in 2015 after multiple attacks.[3]

Economy

Chad is classified as a low-income country by the World Bank.[4] Chad experienced 2.6 percent GDP growth in 2018, after a 3.0 percent decrease in GDP the previous year. Chad’s economy is heavily dependent on oil, and a recent decline in oil prices is expected to negatively impact the country’s economic performance.[5] Agriculture, another key industry, accounted for 52.3 percent of GDP in 2017.[6] 

Chad’s public and private sectors are supported by international aid and investment. However, extensive corruption and limited infrastructure in the country have made it hard for Chad to find willing investors. Chad has seen recent foreign investment in its oil sector and in its services sector, which includes telecommunications and banking.[7]

Social/Human Development

Chad is ethnically diverse; the country contains roughly 16,877,357 people divided across more than 18 ethnic groups. Most of these groups make up small percentages of the population. The most predominant ethnic groups include Sara (30.5 percent), Kanembu/Bornu/Buduma (9.8 percent), Arab (9.7 percent), Wadai/Maba/Massalit/Mimi (7 percent), and Gorane (5.8 percent). Though French and Arabic are Chad’s official languages, there are over 120 different languages and dialects spoken throughout the country. An estimated 52.1 percent of the population are Muslim, while another 23.9 percent are Protestant and 20 percent are Catholic.[8]

As of 2019, 46.7 percent of the population lives below the national poverty line.[9] Chad ranks as one of the least developed countries in the world, with a Human Development Index score of 0.401 and a ranking of 187 out of 189 countries. That score drops to a 0.250 when adjusted for inequality.[10]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2019)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2 

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking risk among children may be found in export supply chains including agriculture and livestock (meat and live animals).

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

In 2017, Chad had positive net immigration.[11] In 2019, international migrants accounted for 3.2 percent of the country’s population.[12] The largest source country for migrants is, by far, Sudan. Other source countries include Central African Republic, Cameroon, Niger, and Nigeria. The UN Refugee Agency estimated that there were 739,065 persons of concern in Chad in 2019. Sixty percent of those people were refugees, and more than 75 percent of refugees came from Sudan. Internally displaced persons accounted for 23 percent of all persons of concern.[13]

 [14]

The top destination countries for migrants from Chad include Sudan, Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African Republic, and Congo.[15]

 

 [16]

Exports and Trade

In 2019, mineral fuels were Chad’s top commodity export by far. Other key exports include oil seeds and fruit, gums and resins, cotton, and electrical machinery.[17]

 

 [18]

The top importers of all goods from Chad were China, India, the United States, France, and Germany.[19]

 

 [20]

 

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS
Freedom of Association

According to the U.S. Department of State, the law provides for the right of all workers to join and form unions, except for members of the armed forces. All workers, including foreign and irregular workers, are legally protected from anti-union discrimination.[21]

The government protects the rights to freedom of association and collective bargaining. Over 90 percent of employees in the formal sector belong to unions, though the majority of workers in Chad are not employed in the formal sector. The government has delayed some collective bargaining because of administrative difficulties and has not given priority to meeting with trade unions.[22]

Working Conditions

The law sets the minimum wage at CFA 60,000 (USD 102) per month, which is above the World Bank’s poverty rate.[23] However, this minimum wage is poorly enforced, particularly in the informal sector. The workweek for most employment is set at 39 hours per week, with paid overtime, while agricultural workers are allowed to work 2,400 hours per year (46 hours per week on average). The government does not consistently enforce these laws, primarily due to a shortage of labor inspectors.[24]

Discrimination

The law prohibits discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, age, national origin, or membership in a union, but does not prohibit discrimination based on disability, sexual orientation, HIV-positive status, or social origin. The U.S. Department of State reports that the government fails to effectively enforce these laws.[25]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits forced labor,[26] and the U.S. Department of State reports that the Chadian government has recently increased its efforts to eliminate trafficking. However, the government continues to struggle to implement its national action plan and fails to adequately train government officials to combat trafficking.[27]

Child Labor

The law sets the legal minimum working age at 14, though certain sectors such as agriculture and domestic work have a minimum working age of 12. The government does not fully enforce these laws, and no cases of child labor were prosecuted in 2019. Additionally, the U.S. Department of State reports that because of a lack of schooling opportunities in some areas, there is a general acceptance of child labor from age 14. While the minimum age for hazardous work is set at 18, this law does not apply to workers in the informal sector.[28]

Civil Society Organizations

The U.S. Department of State reports that the government is sometimes open to human rights groups, including local and international NGOs, and fostered coordination with the organizations to protect human rights.[29] However, Freedom House reports that NGOs must be authorized by the government in order to operate legally, and very few organizations are approved to do so.[30]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

 [31]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

The terrorist organization Boko Haram has been operating throughout the N’Djamena and Lake Chad regions since 2015. The group has carried out numerous attacks on civilians and military forces, and a 2020 attack on a military base killed 98 Chadian soldiers.[32] Chad has taken on heavy security measures in response to these attacks. The Lake Chad region was put under a state of emergency by the government in late 2015 because of terrorist activities,[33] and local defense militias formed.[34] This violence has displaced 169,003 people in the region.[35] Furthermore, security measures have restricted traditional border crossing routes, disrupting trade and livelihoods of local populations.[36]

Chad scored 108.5 on the 2019 Fragile States Index, placing it in the “High Alert” Category, as the seventh most fragile state on the Index.[37] The U.S Department of State has reported government acts of violence and repression against members of the opposition.[38] The World Governance Indicators, run by the World Bank, scored Chad at -1.48 on the “Political Stability and Absence of Violence/Terrorism” indicator. This indicator is scored from -2.5 to +2.5, where a higher score indicates greater political stability.[39]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The U.S. Department of State reports that crime is prevalent, particularly in the area of N’Djamena, which borders Cameroon.[40] The World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index scored Chad 39.8 out of 100 for organized crime and violence, where a lower score indicates higher rates of organized crime. Chad was ranked 125 out of 141 countries for that category.[41]

STATE PERSECUTION

The law within Chad provides for the freedom of movement, travel, emigration, and repatriation of refugees, internally displaced persons, and stateless persons. There have been reports of acts of violence within refugee camps, and the U.S. Department of State has reported a lack of legal protections for refugees and stateless persons in these situations.[42]

The law does not provide for asylum or refugee status, but the government has taken actions to protect refugees systematically, such as working with the UN Refugee Agency to strengthen the civil registration system. The U.S. Department of State reports that there is anti-refugee sentiment throughout communities because of limited resources and refugee-specific aid from humanitarian groups.[43]

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The 2018 Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scored Chad 20 out of 100, where 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and 100 signals “Very Clean.” Chad ranked 162 out of 198 countries on the index.[44] According to the U.S. Department of State, there is corruption at all levels of government, and few investigations, if any, have taken place. The low salaries for civil servants and the poor record of prosecution contribute to corruption.[45] The World Bank’s Worldwide Governance Indicators also reflected that corruption was a severe problem for Chad.[46] 

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Chad scored in the low human development category, according to the UN Human Development Index, with a rank of 187 out of 189 countries and a score of 0.401.[47] Only Niger and Central African Republic, two of Chad’s neighboring countries, scored lower.

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

Chad has a value of 0.250 on the UN’s Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index. The country has a very high level of poverty, and the UN reports that approximately 46.7 percent of the population lives below the national poverty line. They also report that 85.7 percent of the population currently lives in multi-dimensional poverty.[48]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

The UNDP Human Development Report Gender Inequality Index value for Chad is 0.701, ranking it third to last on the index.[49]

Under customary law in Chad, women are not allowed to inherit property or money from their husbands. Under Islamic law, women can only inherit one fourth of the husband’s property. Women’s rights to land ownership are guaranteed under the Civil Code and the Constitution, but discriminatory inheritance practices post barriers to land ownership. Women are also subject to discriminatory practices regarding non-land assets and have limited access to financial services such as bank loans.[50]

Women have been disproportionately subject to domestic violence and have had limited legal recourse. The law prohibits female genital mutilation/cutting, but the practice is still widespread. Discrimination against and exploitation of women in employment, housing, and credit is common.[51] 

Approximately 1.7 percent of the female population has some secondary education, compared to 10.3 percent of the male population. The percentage of women that were a part of the labor force in 2018 was 64.8 percent, compared to 77.9 percent of the male population.[52]

LANDLESSNESS AND DISPOSSESSION

The Civil Code protects real property rights, though the office in charge of property deeds only has authority in urban areas. Property fraud is common, since few land owners have the deeds for their property. The law does not protect traditional use rights for indigenous peoples, tribes, or farmers.[53]

The CIA reports that 236,426 people, the majority from the eastern region of Chad, have been internally displaced because of conflict.[54]

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS

The CIA reports that the inadequate supply of potable water and improper waste disposal in rural areas contribute to soil and water pollution.[55] Desertification has also been an increasing problem. Lake Chad, one of the largest lakes in Africa, has suffered a 90 percent decrease in size over the last 60 years.[56]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Livestock

LIVESTOCK OVERVIEW

Approximately 80 percent of the Chadian population relies on some form of agriculture, which includes livestock, although the market is almost entirely domestic. According to the US Department of Commerce, the Chadian government plans to increase agricultural production and exports in coming years to reduce the country’s dependence on oil.[57]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION

According to the U.S. Department of State, child herders in Chad are sometimes victims of forced labor, and some children are even sold in markets. Military or government officials may be implicated in trafficking child herders.[58]

 

Oil and Gas

OIL AND GAS OVERVIEW

Petroleum revenues make up over half of Chad’s national budget, and Chad is in the top ten oil reserve holders in Africa. The country’s landlocked location makes it difficult to export goods, but a pipeline brings Chadian oil to a coastal city in Cameroon, where it is then shipped to Chad’s export partners. Chad’s oil sector is a relatively recent development for the country; Chad has been extracting oil since the early 2000s.[59]

Chad does not export natural gas. Currently, less than one percent of known natural gas reserves in the country have been utilized.[60]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISKS FACTORS IN OIL AND GAS PRODUCTION

Oil and gas development is affected by government corruption in Chad. The World Bank and a consortium of oil companies agreed to invest in the exploration and construction of the oil fields under the preconditions that 80 percent of oil revenues would go towards development projects, and that the majority of the oil revenue would be put into a transparent bank account in London.[61] An independent third-party auditing group composed of stakeholders from both the government and civil society was intended to oversee the direct oil revenue.

All of these initial measures were taken to limit the state corruption that is associated with the production of oil. However, these preemptive precautions did not succeed in stopping the state’s corrupt use of oil revenues.[62] In 2006, President Deby, pressured by rebel uprisings, amended the agreement with the World Bank, and used oil money to buy weapons for the military.  While some of the oil money has been used to fund infrastructure building, little to none has gone to the promised development projects.[63] The World Bank pulled out of the project and froze the London account as a result.[64] State corruption has also taken the form of government officials accepting large bribes from oil companies.[65] 

The construction of the Chad-Cameroon Pipeline has been linked to additional TIP risk in Chad. According to the Guardian, “water supplies have been damaged, pygmies have lost hunting lands, farmers have lost land and crops and an influx of immigrant workers has brought child prostitution and spread Aids.”[66]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[2]  Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2020: Chad. 2020.

https://freedomhouse.org/country/chad/freedom-world/2020

[3] Central Intelligence Agency. World Fact Book. Chad. 2020.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html

[4] World Bank. Country Data, Chad. 2020.

https://data.worldbank.org/country/chad?view=chart

[5] World Bank. Country Overview, Chad. 2019.

http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/chad/overview

[6] Central Intelligence Agency. World Fact Book. Chad. 2020.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html

[7] Central Intelligence Agency. World Fact Book. Chad. 2020.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html

[8] Central Intelligence Agency. World Fact Book. Chad. 2020.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html

[9] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports, Chad. 2019.

http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/TCD

[10] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports, Chad. 2019.

http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/TCD

[11] World Bank. Net Migration – Chad. 2020.

https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.NETM?locations=TD

[12] United National Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. International Migrant Stock: Country Profiles. 2019.

https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/countryprofiles.asp

[13] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Refugee Data Finder. 2019.

https://www.unhcr.org/refugee-statistics/download/?url=C62a

[14] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. International Migrant Stock. 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[15] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. International Migrant Stock. 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[16] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. Population Division. International Migrant Stock. 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[17] International Trade Center. Trade Map. 2019.

www.trademap.org.

[18] International Trade Center. Trade Map. 2019.

 www.trademap.org.

[19] International Trade Center. Trade Map. 2019.

 www.trademap.org.

[20] International Trade Center. Trade Map. 2019.

www.trademap.org.

[21] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[22] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[23] U.S. Department of State. 2018 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[24] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[25] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[26] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[27] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/chad/

[28] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[29] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[30] Freedom House. Freedom in the World 2020: Chad. 2020.

https://freedomhouse.org/country/chad/freedom-world/2020

[31] International Labour Organization. Ratifications for Chad.

https://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11200:0::NO::P11200_COUNTRY_ID:103386

[32] Africa Center for Strategic Studies. Chad’s Escalating Fight Against Boko Haram. 2020.

https://africacenter.org/spotlight/chad-escalating-fight-against-boko-haram/

[33] Central Intelligence Agency. World Fact Book. Chad. 2020.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html

[34] International Crisis Group. Fighting Boko Haram in Chad: Beyond Military Measures. 2017.

https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/central-africa/chad/246-fighting-boko-haram-chad-beyond-military-measures

[35] United States Agency for International Development. Lake Chad Basin – Complex Emergency: Fact Sheet #2.

https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1866/03.31.20_-_USAID-DCHA_Lake_Chad_Basin_Complex_Emergency_Fact_Sheet_2_0.pdf

[36] International Crisis Group. Fighting Boko Haram in Chad: Beyond Military Measures. 2017. https://www.crisisgroup.org/africa/central-africa/chad/246-fighting-boko-haram-chad-beyond-military-measures

[37] Fund for Peace. Country Data and Trends. 2019.

https://fragilestatesindex.org/country-data/

[38] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[39] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2018.

https://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/

[40] Overseas Security Advisory Council, U.S. Department of State. Chad 2020 Crime & Safety Report. 2020.

https://www.osac.gov/Content/Report/7a7761c2-692d-49b7-85ad-182ea5ccabf4

[41] World Economic Forum. The Global Competitiveness Report. 2019.

http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_TheGlobalCompetitivenessReport2019.pdf

[42] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[43] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[44] Transparency International. Corruptions Perceptions Index. 2019.

https://www.transparency.org/en/cpi/2019/results/tcd

[45] US Department of State. 2019 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/chad/

[46] World Bank. Worldwide Governance Indicators. 2018.

https://info.worldbank.org/governance/wgi/

[47] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports, Chad. 2019.

http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/TCD

[48] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports, Chad. 2019. http://www.hdr.undp.org/en/countries/profiles/TCD

[49] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports, Gender Inequality Index. 2019.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-5-gender-inequality-index-gii

[50] Social Institutions and Gender Index. Chad. 2019.

https://www.genderindex.org/wp-content/uploads/files/datasheets/2019/TD.pdf

[51] Social Institutions and Gender Index. Chad. 2019.

https://www.genderindex.org/wp-content/uploads/files/datasheets/2019/TD.pdf 

[52] United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Reports, Gender Inequality Index. 2019.

http://hdr.undp.org/en/content/table-5-gender-inequality-index-gii

[53] U.S. Department of State. 2019 Investment Climate Statements: Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-investment-climate-statements/chad/

[54] Central Intelligence Agency. World Fact Book. Chad. 2020.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html

[55] Central Intelligence Agency. World Fact Book. Chad. 2020.

https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/cd.html

[56] United Nations Environment Programme. The Tale of a Disappearing Lake. 2018.

https://www.unenvironment.org/news-and-stories/story/tale-disappearing-lake

[57] Export.Gov. Chad – Agricultural Sectors. 2019.

https://legacy.export.gov/article?id=Chad-Agricultural-Sectors

[58] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. Chad. 2019.

https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/chad/

[59] Export.Gov. Chad – Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Exploration. 2019.

https://legacy.export.gov/article?id=Chad-Mining-Quarrying-and-Oil-and-Gas-Exploration

[60] Export.Gov. Chad – Mining, Quarrying, and Oil and Gas Exploration. 2019.

https://legacy.export.gov/article?id=Chad-Mining-Quarrying-and-Oil-and-Gas-Exploration

[61] “Concept Paper: The Chad-Cameroon Petroleum Development and Pipeline Project.” The World Bank Working for a World Free of Poverty. N.p., 21 Apr. 2000. Web. 14 Apr. 2017.

[62] Brown, Paul. “Chad oil pipeline under attack for harming the poor.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 26 Sept. 2002. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2002/sep/27/internationalnews

[63] Hicks, Celeste. “Chad’s oil project 10 years on: has anything changed?” African Arguments. N.p., 31 July 2013. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

https://africanarguments.org/2013/07/31/chads-oil-project-10-years-on-has-anything-changed-by-celeste-hicks/

[64] Rice, Xan. “World Bank cancels pipeline deal with Chad after revenues misspent.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 11 Sept. 2008. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2008/sep/12/worldbank.oil#:~:text=World%20Bank%20cancels%20pipeline%20deal%20with%20Chad%20after%20revenues%20misspent,-This%20article%20is&text=The%20World%20Bank%20has%20quietly,Idriss%20D%C3%A9by’s%20grip%20on%20power.

[65] “UPDATE 1-U.S. seeks $34 mln for Griffiths Energy bribe scheme of Chad diplomat.” Reuters. Thomson Reuters, 30 June 2015. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

https://www.reuters.com/article/usa-justice-corruption/update-1-u-s-seeks-34-mln-for-griffiths-energy-bribe-scheme-of-chad-diplomat-idUSL1N0ZG1Z120150630

[66] Brown, Paul. “Chad oil pipeline under attack for harming the poor.” The Guardian. Guardian News and Media, 26 Sept. 2002. Web. 27 Mar. 2017.

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2002/sep/27/internationalnews

Trafficking Risk in Sub-Saharan African Supply Chains

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