Trafficking Risk in Sub-Saharan African Supply Chains

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Angola Country Overview

Politics

Angola is a presidential republic.[1] This nation has been politically stable since the end of the civil war in 2002. A parliamentary system was constitutionally enshrined in 2010, shifting from a direct popular election of the president to the election of the party head that won the most seats.[2]

The ruling party, Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), has been in power since 1975.[3] In the most recent election, which took place during August of 2017, the MPLA won the highest percentage of votes, and Joao Lourenco was elected president.[4] He replaced Jose Eduardo dos Santos, who had been in power since 1979.[5] This 2017 election marked the country’s first peaceful transition of government.[6]

Economy

Angola’s economy is largely dependent on its oil sector. Oil production accounts for 50 percent of the country’s GDP, over 70 percent of government revenue, and more than 90 percent of the country’s exports.[7] Diamond production comprises 5 percent of exports.[8] Agricultural production remains the main source of employment.[9] In 2018, the government implemented a development model that focused on agribusiness; this resulted in the deprivation of land among many rural communities.[10] In response to recent oil price declines, the government is increasing its focus on economic diversification in order to reduce dependency on extractive industries and reliance on imports.[11] Economic growth from oil production averaged more than 17 percent from 2004 to 2008, but a global economic recession caused growth to slow to 2.4 percent in 2009.[12] The new administration also prioritized an increase in foreign investment. The Agency for Investment and Promotion of Exports of Angola (AIPEX), created by the government in 2018, exists to promote investments and the international status of Angolan companies.[13] Recently, the government has focused on developing Angola’s infrastructure in terms of electricity, water, and transportation.[14]

Social/Human Development

Due to its oil wealth, Angola is considered an upper middle-income country, with a USD 105 billion GDP and USD 3,370 per capita income.[15] However, despite years of abundant revenue, income remains highly unequal, and Angola demonstrates one of the lowest life expectancy rates in the world, averaging at 61 years. A large share of the population lives below the international poverty line.[16] Angola continues to recover from a 27-year long civil war that ended in 2002.[17] Poverty, high maternal and infant mortality, and illiteracy remain among the country’s most prominent socioeconomic issues.[18]

Angola’s largest ethnic groups consist of Ovimbundu (37 percent), Kimbundu (25 percent), and Bakongo (13 percent), while Mestiço (mixed European and native African) make up two percent of the population, Europeans contrive one percent, and the remaining 22 percent are recognized as other.[19] 14,000 San people, a traditional hunter-gatherer group, partly comprise the other 22 percent of the population. The San have been identified as a particularly vulnerable group; they lack basic government services and have been significantly impacted by land reforms.[20]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2019)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2 Watch List 

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking and risk of trafficking was noted in potentially exported supply chains, particularly in agriculture and mining, and specifically in diamond mining. Trafficking risk was also indicated within the construction sector, which has been noted to support the export of mineral fuels.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Angola has a positive net migration. About 0.4 percent of the population are migrants.[21] The largest source country for migrants is the Democratic Republic of the Congo, followed by Guinea, Côte d’Ivoire, Cabo Verde, and São Tomé and Príncipe. Other migrant sending countries include South Africa, Portugal, and Chad.[22]

There was an estimated 70,005 persons of concern by the end of 2018. Over half (56.9 percent) of that population were refugees. The UN Refugee Agency reported 30,140 asylum-seekers living in Angola, comprising 43 percent of the population of persons of concern.[23] Many refugees, who were fleeing from conflict in DRC, face the danger of abusive deportation by the Angolan government.[24]

[25]

The top destination countries for migrants from Angola were the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Portugal, South Africa, The Republic of the Congo, and Namibia.[26]

[27]

Exports and Trade

Angola’s top exports for 2018 were mineral fuels, ships, semi-precious stones (diamonds, pearls), machinery, and wood.[28]

[29]

According to 2018 data, the countries that imported the most goods by value from Angola were China, India, the United States, Spain, and South Africa.[30]

[31]

Angola was ranked as the United States’ 61st largest supplier of goods in 2018, with a total of USD 2.7 billion in goods, down by 85.7 percent from 2008. The U.S. primarily imports mineral fuels and diamonds from Angola. U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in Angola was USD 394 million in 2018, down by 49.5 percent from 2017.[32]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS

Freedom of Association

The law provides for the right of workers, except those in the armed forces or police, to form and join independent unions. For a trade union to be established, the law requires that at least 30 percent of workers in an economic sector or province must follow a registration process and obtain authorization from officials. The law provides for the right to collectively bargain but excludes those in civil services. Strikes by members of the armed forces, police, prosecutors and magistrates, prison staff, fire fighters, public sector employees and oil workers are prohibited.[33]

The law does not protect employees who engage in unauthorized strike action from being fired by their employer, but employers are required to reinstate workers who have been dismissed for union activity.[34]

However, the U.S. Department of State reported that the government does not effectively enforce labor laws, and that freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining are not typically respected.[35]

Working Conditions

Minimum wage law has been enforced by the government in the formal labor sector. In 2019, the national minimum wage was set at 16,503 kwanzas (USD 52.6), and was expected to reach 21,454 kwanzas (USD 68.3) for the agriculture sector, 26, 817 kwanzas (USD 85.5) for the trade and manufacturing sector, and 32,181 kwanzas (USD 102.5) for the extractive industries sector.[36] This law does not extend to the informal sector, such as for street vendors, subsistence farmers, or domestic servants.[37] An estimated 60 percent of the economy works within the informal sector and most wage earners hold second jobs or depend on agriculture and other informal sectors to supplement their incomes.[38] Additionally, while the law guarantees a safe work environment for all sectors of the economy, most workers in the informal sector are not protected by occupational safety standards.[39]

Due to a presidential decree in 2016, domestic workers are provided with a minimum wage, an eight-hour work day for workers living outside of their employer’s home, and a 10-hour work day for those residing in-house.[40] Employers are also required to make contributions to a domestic workers’ social security protection, and maternity and holiday allowances. The Ministry of Public Administration, Employment and Social Security (MAPTSS) is responsible for implementing and enforcing these standards.[41]

Discrimination

The constitution and law prohibit discrimination in employment based on race, sex, religion, disability, or language, and the government has typically been recognized as being effective in enforcing these laws in the formal sector. The law provides for equal pay for equal work, and women have been reported to  hold at least some high-level positions in state-run industries and in the private sector. However, many women tend to hold low-level positions, particularly those involving work in the informal sector.[42] The constitution does not address discrimination with respect to political opinion, national origin, sexual orientation, or gender identity.[43]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor.[44] The government reportedly does not enforce this law effectively, partially due to a shortage of adequate labor inspectors. Penalties are reportedly insufficient to deter violations.[45]

Child Labor

The law prohibits children under the age of 14 from working. In order to obtain an employment contract, children must offer proof that they are 14 years of age or older.[46] With documentation, children are able to work, as long as the work does not interfere with their formal education or cause any degree of physical or mental harm. Parental consent for work is required from ages 14 to 16.[47] Education is tuition free and compulsory for documented children until the sixth grade.[48] The U.S. Department of State reported that the government did not consistently enforce this law, and that child labor remains an issue especially within the informal sector.[49]

Civil Society Organizations

There are several hundred nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) operating in Angola that advocate for transparency, human rights, and political reform. Organizations that are critical of the government often face state interference and can be threatened with lawsuits or closure.[50] In 2017, the Constitutional Court ruled that a 2015 decree requiring NGOs to register with the government and subjecting NGOs that receive donations to undergo further investigation was no longer constitutional, due to criticisms from civil society. These criticisms openly declared the decree  restrictive and intrusive citing the ways it required NGOs to receive approval from the government before engaging in activities and the way it allowed the government to supervise organizations.[51] The U.S. Department of State has reported that extensive delays in the NGO registration process continue to be an issue.[52]

Immigration Policies Limiting the Employment Options or Movement of Migrants

There are several barriers that hinder refugees’ and migrants’ ability to obtain employment.  Regulation 273/13 restricts refugees from obtaining a mandatory business license, which is necessary in order to own and operate a business.[53] Refugees also have reported that they often face difficulty working in the formal sector because they are not able to obtain legal documents.[54]

According to the U.S. Department of State, migrant workers have been subject to seizure of passports, threats, denial of food and confinement.[55]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

[56]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Angola scored an 87.8 on the Fragile States Index and ranked 35 out of 178 countries and territories (where a lower rank indicates lower levels of stability) in 2019, having risen from a ranking of 33 in 2018.[57] Political Instability in Angola has been attributed to the government’s heightened repressive measures concerning the rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly, and the public’s discontent expressed through protest.[58]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

Robbery remains the primary threat to expatriates in Luanda, the country’s capital.[59] The UNODC reported that Angola had a homicide rate of 10 homicides per 100,000 people in 2012.[60]

STATE PERSECUTION

In October 2018, Human Rights Watch documented the forcible ejection of over 400,000 Congolese migrants from the country by security forces.[61] Congolese migrants targeted in the expulsion accused the Angolan forces of using excessive violence.[62]

Many children remain undocumented due to low rates of birth registration. In 2018, the government continued to work on improving the rates of registration through the implementation of onsite registers at maternity wards and the training of midwives in rural areas.[63] Failure of the government to carry out key elements of a 2015 Asylum Law further impeded the ability of non-native children, including refugees, to receive birth certificates. NGOs have also noted that security forces have harassed refugees and asylum seekers.[64]

Angola is home to an estimated 14,000 San, an ethnically distinct group of indigenous people who reside in dispersed communities in Huila, Cunene, and Cuando Cubango provinces.[65] The constitution does not make specific reference to the rights of indigenous persons; as a result, the San are not afforded full access to obtaining services such as health care, education, and identification cards.[66] The government is reported to have allocated the San people’s traditional lands to businesses and well-educated elites without the San’s knowledge or consent, which has brought about violent conflicts resulting in the deaths of several San people. Refer below to the sub-section on Landlessness and Dispossession.

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scored Angola 19 out of 100, where 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and 100 signals “Very Clean.” Angola ranked 165 out of 180 countries on this index.[67] Angola’s business environment remains one of the most challenging in the world, as investors attempt to navigate pervasive corruption, an underdeveloped financial system, poor infrastructure, abundances of unskilled labor, and extremely high on-the-ground costs.[68]

Despite the current administration’s efforts to combat corruption, its prevalence persists due to a lack of checks and balances performed by administrative bodies, weak enforcement of the law, and the tradition of exemption from punishment.[69]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Angola’s HDI value for 2017 was 0.581, which placed the country in the medium human development category and ranked it 145 out of 189 countries and territories. When adjusted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.393, a loss of 32.4 percent due to inequality.[70] For comparison, the HDI of neighboring and migrant-sending DRC is 0.457.

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

According to the World Bank, 36.6 percent of the population lives below the national poverty line[71], with a rural poverty gap of 21.6 percent.[72]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

Under the 1992 Land Act, women and men have equal access to land. However, in an update to this law (referred to as the 2004 Land Law), women’s equal access to land is unmentioned.[73] Under the Civil Code and Family Code, women have equal rights to property, but it is not made clear whether this law applies to non-land assets.[74]

Female literacy rates are considerably lower than male literacy rates. In total, 71 percent of the population is literate, but remains disaggregated by gender, showing that 82 percent of males and 60.7 percent of females are literate.[75] These differences are in part due to lower education rates among girls.[76] The African Development Bank reports that women in Angola may struggle to access credit due to illiteracy or a lack of assets that lenders require.[77]

Sexual harassment is not recognized as illegal, although it can be prosecuted under the criminal code.[78] The risk of sexual violence reportedly impedes women’s ability to move freely. Female refugees from DRC are subject to “arbitrary detention and sexual violence while imprisoned.”[79]

LANDLESSNESS OR DISPOSSESSION

The constitution of Angola recognizes the right to housing and quality of life and states that relocated persons should receive fair compensation.[80]

In 2016, the government used eminent domain laws to seize property and make room for the Luanda-Bengo Economic Zone.[81] According to NGO sources and multiple press reports, hundreds of allegedly illegal homes in the suburban zone known as Zango were demolished by security forces resulting in the displacement of thousands of people. It was reported that not all of those who were relocated received fair, if any, compensation due to a lack of clear title permits for the destroyed property.[82] Similarly, in June 2018, the government allowed the Agro-Industrial Horizonte 2020 mega project to take 76,000 hectares of fertile land from Cunene province without informed consent of the affected communities.[83]

The government has reportedly permitted businesses and well-educated elites to dispossess land from the indigenous San people, which in some cases has led to the killing of San individuals who were allegedly hunting illegally on lands they had traditionally occupied.[84]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Diamonds

DIAMONDS OVERVIEW

The largest reserves of diamonds are located in Northeast Angola. Revenue is estimated at over USD 650 million, but high rates of smuggling prevent more precise data.[85] In 2015, Angola produced about seven percent of global diamond output.[86] Lower prices for oil and diamonds resulted in a 0.7 percent decline in GDP in 2016.[87]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN DIAMONDS

According to the U.S. Department of State 2019 Trafficking in Persons Report, diamonds are produced with forced child labor in Angola.[88]  According to some reports, trafficking in Angola’s diamond sector can be a result of bonded labor in which “sponsors” pay for a miner’s expenses and are reimbursed through a portion of the mined diamonds.[89]

Migrant workers are also present in the diamond-mining sector in Angola. Labor and sex trafficking of adults and children from DRC reportedly occur around alluvial diamond mining in Angola. The Angolan military has pursued a policy of ejecting Congolese migrants working in illegal diamond mines. In 2012, Human Rights Watch documented significant abuses of these migrants at the hands of security forces, including instances of rape, physical torture, and denial of any due process.[90]

Mineral Fuels

MINERAL FUELS OVERVIEW

Angola is the second-largest producer of oil in sub-Saharan Africa, with estimated production levels of 1.67 million barrels a day. Oil exports accounted for approximately 52 percent of total fiscal revenue from 2017.[91] Most production comes from off-shore fields.[92] 

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN MINERAL FUELS

Trafficking has been noted in the Angolan construction sector, which had been thriving in support of the mineral fuels extraction sector until 2015.[93] According to the U.S. Department of State, Chinese, Southeast Asian, Brazilian, Namibian, Kenyan and possibly Congolese migrants working in the sector experience passport withholdings, threats, confinements and abuse. Traffickers exploited Angolans and minors as well. These abuses were reportedly relatively prominent in Chinese operated ventures.[94] The presence of temporary migrants from Brazil and other South American countries in the Angolan construction sector has also been noted.[95]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html

[2] World Bank. Angola Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/angola/overview

[3] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[4] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-investment-climate-statements/angola/

[5] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[6] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-investment-climate-statements/angola/

[7] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html 

[8] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html 

[9] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html

[10] Amnesty International. Annual Report. 2017-2018. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/

[11] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-investment-climate-statements/angola/

[12] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html

[13] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-investment-climate-statements/angola/

[14] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-investment-climate-statements/angola/ 

[15] World Bank. Data: Angola. https://data.worldbank.org/country/angola

[16] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html 

[17] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html 

[18] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html 

[19] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html 

[20] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/ 

[21] World Bank. International migrant stock (% of population). 2008 revision.  http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.TOTL.ZS?locations=AO&name_desc=false 

[22] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[23] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Population Statistics. 2018. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview 

[24] Human Rights Watch. Angola: Stop Abusive Expulsions of Migrants. November 15, 2018. https://www.hrw.org/news/2018/11/15/angola-stop-abusive-expulsions-migrants

[25] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[26] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[27] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. International Migrant Stock 2019. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/estimates2/estimates19.asp

[28] International Trade Center. Trade Map. 2018. https://www.trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry_Graph.aspx?nvpm=1%7c024%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c

[29] International Trade Center. Trade Map. 2018. https://www.trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry_Graph.aspx?nvpm=1%7c024%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c

[30] OEC. Angola. https://oec.world/en/profile/country/ago/ 

[31] International Trade Center. Trade Map. 2018. https://www.trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry_Graph.aspx?nvpm=1%7c024%7c%7c%7c%7cTOTAL%7c%7c%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c2%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c1%7c

[32] Office of the United States Trade Representative. Angola. https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/southern-africa/angola

[33] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[34] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[35] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[36] AllAfrica. “Angola: Minimum Wage for Private Sector in Angola Set at 30 Percent.” 2019. https://allafrica.com/stories/201902250056.html

[37] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[38] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[39] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[40] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[41] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[42] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[43] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[44] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[45] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[46] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[47] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[48] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[49] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[50] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2018. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2019/angola

[51] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[52] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[53] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[54] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[55] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[56] International Labour Organization. Ratifications for Angola. http://www.ilo.org/dyn/normlex/en/f?p=NORMLEXPUB:11200:0::NO::P11200_COUNTRY_ID:102999

[57] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index. 2019. https://fragilestatesindex.org/country-data/

[58] Amnesty International. Annual Report. 2017-2018. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/#

[59] U.S. Department of State. Angola 2019 Crime & Safety Report. 2019. https://www.osac.gov/Country/Angola/Content/Detail/Report/b7e17811-269d-4cfd-8b31-15f4aeb7b013 

[60] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Global Homicide Study. 2012. https://www.unodc.org/gsh/en/data.html 

[61] Human Rights Watch. World Report 2019: Angola. 2018. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/angola

[62] Human Rights Watch. World Report 2019: Angola. 2018. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2019/country-chapters/angola

[63] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/ 

[64] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/ 

[65] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[66] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/ 

[67] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index. 2018. https://www.transparency.org/cpi2018 

[68] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-investment-climate-statements/angola/

[69] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2018.  https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-investment-climate-statements/angola/

[70] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Statistical Update. 2018. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/2018_human_development_statistical_update.pdf

[71] World Bank. Angola. https://data.worldbank.org/country/angola

[72] World Bank. Rural poverty gap at national poverty lines (%). 2008. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.RUGP?locations=AO

[73] Social Institutions & Gender Index. Angola. 2014. https://www.genderindex.org/country/angola-2014-results/

[74] Social Institutions & Gender Index. Angola. 2014. https://www.genderindex.org/country/angola-2014-results/

[75] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html

[76] Social Institutions & Gender Index. Angola. 2014. https://www.genderindex.org/country/angola-2014-results/

[77] Social Institutions & Gender Index. Angola. 2014.  https://www.genderindex.org/country/angola-2014-results/            

[78] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report 2018. Angola. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[79] Social Institutions and Gender Index. Angola  2014. https://www.genderindex.org/country/angola-2014-results/

[80] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/ 

[81] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/ 

[82] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018. https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/ 

[83] Amnesty International. Annual Report. 2017-2018. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/

[84] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2018.  https://www.state.gov/reports/2018-country-reports-on-human-rights-practices/angola/

[85] Nirit Ben-Ari. “Angola’s economy grows, but what about the poor?” The Africa Report. October 17, 2014.  https://www.theafricareport.com/3861/angolas-economy-grows-but-what-about-the-poor/

[86] U.S Geological Survey. 2015 Minerals Yearbook. 2015. https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/prd-wret/assets/palladium/production/mineral-pubs/diamond/myb1-2015-diamo.pdf

[87] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2020. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html 

[88] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/angola/.

[89] Allen, Michael. “The ‘Blood Diamond’ Resurfaces.” The Wall Street Journal. June 19, 2010. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704198004575311282588959188.html

[90] Human Rights Watch. “’If You Come Back We Will Kill You’ Sexual Violence and other Abuses against Congolese Migrants during Expulsions from Angola.” May 20, 2012.  https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/05/20/if-you-come-back-we-will-kill-you/sexual-violence-and-other-abuses-against

[91] U.S Energy Information Administration. Angola. 2019. https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.php?iso=AGO

[92] U.S Exports. Angola – Oil and Gas. 2019.. https://www.export.gov/apex/article2?id=Angola-Market-Overview

[93] Norimitsu Onishi. “Angola’s Corrupt Building Boom: ‘Like Opening a Window and Throwing Out Money.’” New York Times. June 24, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/24/world/africa/angola-luanda-jose-eduardo-dos-santos.html?mcubz=1

[94] U.S State Department. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2019. https://www.state.gov/reports/2019-trafficking-in-persons-report-2/angola/ 

[95] Evelyn Nieves. “Portuguese Migrants Struggle to Find Relief in Angola.” New York Times. December 17, 2015. https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/12/17/portuguese-migrants-struggle-to-find-relief-in-angola/?mcubz=1

Trafficking Risk in Sub-Saharan African Supply Chains

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