Angola Country Overview

Politics

Angola is a presidential republic.[1] Angola has been politically stable since 2002, when the civil war ended. A parliamentary system was constitutionally enshrined in 2010, shifting from a direct popular election of the president.[2]

The ruling party, Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA), has been in power since 1975.[3] In the most recent election in August of 2016, the MPLA won the highest percentage of votes, and therefore President José Eduardo dos Santos was re-elected for five more years. He has been president since 1979.[4]

Economy

Angola is highly dependent on the oil sector. The economy is driven by oil production, which accounts for 50 percent of the country’s GDP, more than 70 percent of government revenue, and more than 90 percent of the country’s exports.[5] Diamond production contributes 5 percent to exports. [6] 85 percent of the workforce is engaged in agricultural production.[7]

Severe economic pressure due to falling oil revenues has caused the Government of Angola to cut the budget by 20 percent and seek support of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in the past year.[8] In response to recent oil price declines, the government is focusing on economic diversification to reduce reliance on extractive industries and dependence on imports.[9] Economic growth from oil production averaged more than 17 percent from 2004 to 2008, but the global economic recession slowed growth to 2.4 percent in 2009.[10] Recent government efforts have focused on projects to develop Angola’s infrastructure.[11]

Social/Human Development

Due to its oil wealth, Angola is technically an upper-middle-income country, with a USD 102 billion GDP and USD 4,100 per capita income. However, despite years of abundant revenue, income is highly unequal, and Angola has one of the lowest life-expectancy rates in the world at 52 years; a large share of the population lives below the international poverty line.[12] Angola is still rebuilding from a 27-year civil war that ended in 2002. Reliance on oil has contributed to a worsening economic crisis as the price of food, health care, and fuel have increased drastically, placing them out of the reach of many citizens.[13]

Angola’s most prominent ethnic groups consist of 37 percent Ovimbundu, 25 percent Kimbundu, 13 percent Bakongo, two percent mestico (mixed European and native African), one percent European and 22 percent other.[14] The 14,000 San people, who are traditional hunter-gatherers, partly comprise the other 22 percent of the population. The San have been identified as a particularly vulnerable group, and have been highly impacted by land reform.[15]

U.S. Department of State TIP Report Summary (2017)

U.S. Department of State TIP Ranking: Tier 2

According to the Trafficking in Persons Report, trafficking and trafficking risk was noted in potentially exported supply chains including construction, agriculture, and mining (including artisanal diamond mining). Women and children are at-risk for sex trafficking associated with the construction and mining sectors.

Migrant and Other Vulnerable Populations

Angola has positive net migration. About 0.4 percent of the population are migrants.[16] The largest source country for migrants is by far the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), followed by Portugal, Cabo Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, and South Africa. Other migrant sending countries include Rwanda, Republic of the Congo, Namibia, Guinea, and Zambia.[17]

There was an estimated 50,337 persons of concern at the end of 2015. Over half (59.9 percent) of that population were asylum seekers. There were reported to be 15,555 refugees living in Angola, comprising 30 percent of the population of persons of concern.[18] Many refugees were fleeing conflict in DRC.[19]

The top destination countries for migrants from Angola were the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Portugal, and the Republic of the Congo.[20]

Exports and Trade

Angola’s top exports for 2016 were mineral fuels, semi-precious stones (diamonds), machinery, salt, and fish and crustaceans.[21]

According to 2016 mirror data, the countries that imported the most goods by value from Angola were China, the United States and India.[22]

Angola was the United States’ sixtieth largest supplier of goods in 2015, with a total of USD 2.8 billion in goods, down over 67 percent from 2005. U.S. primarily imports mineral fuels and diamonds from Angola. The U.S. foreign direct investment (FDI) in Angola was USD 1.9 billion in 2014.[23]

Trafficking in Persons Risk Factors Analysis

Legal/Policy Risk Factors

LEVEL OF LEGAL PROTECTION FOR CIVIL LIBERTIES AND WORKERS’ RIGHTS

Freedom of Association

The law provides for the right of workers, except those in the armed forces or police, to form and join independent unions. For a trade union to be established, the law requires that at least 30 percent of workers in an economic sector or province must follow a registration process and obtain authorization from officials. The law provides for the right to collectively bargain but excludes those in civil services. Strikes by members of the armed forces, police, prosecutors and magistrates, prison staff, fire fighters, public sector employees and oil workers are prohibited.[24]

The law does not protect employees who engaged in unauthorized strike action from being fired by their employer but employers are required to reinstate workers who have been dismissed for union activity.[25]

The U.S. Department of State reported that the government did not effectively enforce the applicable laws, and that freedom of association and the right to collective bargaining were not generally respected.[26]

Working Conditions

The minimum wage in the trade and extractive industries sectors is AOA 22,495 (USD 132) per month, AOA 18,750 (USD110) in the transportation, services and manufacturing sectors, and AOA 15,003 (USD 88) in the agriculture sector. The minimum wage law does not extend to the informal sector, such as street vendors, subsistence farmers or domestic servants.[27] While the country has not established a poverty income level, the UNDP estimated it to be AOA 165 (USD 1) per day, or AOA 4,950 (USD 29) per month.[28]

While the minimum wage law is effectively enforced in the formal sector; 60 percent of the economy derives from the informal sector and most wage earners hold second jobs or depend on the agricultural or other informal sectors to supplement their incomes.[29] Additionally, while the law guarantees a safe work environment for all sectors of the economy, most workers in the informal sector are not protected by occupational safety standards.[30]

Through Presidential Decree 15/16, domestic workers are provided a minimum wage, an eight-hour work day for workers living outside of their employer’s home and a 10-hour work day for those residing in-house.[31] Employers are also required to make contributions to a domestic workers’ social security protection, and maternity and holiday allowances. The Ministry of Public Administration, Employment and Social Security (MAPTSS) is responsible for implementing and enforcing these standards.[32]

Discrimination

The labor law prohibits discrimination in employment and occupation based on race, sex, religion, disability, or language, and the government has generally been found to be effective at enforcing the law in the formal sector. The law provides for equal pay for equal work, and women reportedly hold at least some high-level positions in state-run industries and in the private sector, and many work in the informal sector.[33] The constitution does not address discrimination with respect to political opinion, national origin, sexual orientation or gender identity.[34]

Forced Labor

The law prohibits all forms of forced or compulsory labor.[35] The government reportedly does not enforce this effectively, partly due to a lack of an appropriate number of labor inspectors. Penalties are reportedly insufficient to deter violations.[36]

Child Labor

The law prohibits children under the age of 14 from working. In order to obtain an employment contract, children must provide proof that they are 14 years of age or older.[37] With documentation, children can work, as long as the work does not interfere with schooling or cause physical or mental harm. Parental consent for work is required from ages 14 to 16.[38] Education is tuition-free and compulsory for documented children through the sixth grade. [39]

Civil Society Organizations

There are several hundred nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) operating in Angola that openly advocate for transparency, human rights and political reform. Organizations that are critical of the government often face state interference and are threatened with closure.[40] In early 2015, President dos Santos issued a decree which requires NGOs to register with the government and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to operate and those NGOs that receive donations are required to go through further authorizations and are subject to government supervision and audits.[41] The U.S. Department of State has reported that there are extensive delays in the NGO registration process and it continues to be a problem.[42] Human Rights Watch further notes that the decree permits authorities to determine the programs and projects that NGOs are able to carry out, and to determine their location.[43] Furthermore, NGOs are required to prove to the government that their activities have a tangible “public benefit”— a stipulation that limits the work of some NGOs more than others, especially those doing work on political and human rights.[44]

Immigration Policies Limiting the Employment Options or Movement of Migrants

There are several barriers that hinder refugees’ and migrants’ ability to obtain employment.  Regulation 273/13 restricts refugees from obtaining the “Alvara commercial” business license, which is necessary in order to own and operate a business.[45] Refugees also have reported that they face difficulty working in the formal sector because they are not able to obtain legal documents.[46]

According to the U.S. Department of State, migrant workers have been subject to seizure of passports, threats, denial of food and confinement.[47]

Ratification of ILO Conventions Related to Human Trafficking or Rights of Workers and Migrants

[48]

Political Risk Factors

POLITICAL INSTABILITY OR CONFLICT

Angola scored a 90.5 on the Fragile States Index and ranked 37 out of 178 countries and territories (where a lower rank indicates lower levels of stability) in 2016, down from a ranking of 42 in 2015.[49]  Political Instability in Angola is attributed to the government’s heightened repressive measures in regard to the rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly, and the public’s discontent expressed through protest.[50]

LEVEL OF CRIME AND VIOLENCE

The U.S. Department of State reports that “the country’s worsening economic situation and associated criminality remain a serious threat to safety and security in Angola.” [51] The UNODC reports that Angola had a homicide rate of 10 homicides per 100,000 people in 2012. [52]

STATE PERSECUTION

In 2012, Human Rights Watch documented significant abuses and forcible ejection of Congolese migrants from the country at the hands of security forces.[53] Specifically, Human Rights Watch reported rape, physical torture, and denial of any due process. [54]

Many children are undocumented due to low rates of birth registration. As of mid-2013, it was reported that 69 percent of children under age five did not have birth certificates[55] which are required to attend school.[56] Non-native children, including refugees, were further impeded from accessing birth certificates by a 2015 Asylum Law. NGOs have also noted that security forces have harassed refugees and asylum seekers.[57]

Angola is home to an estimated 14,000 San people, an ethnically distinct group of indigenous people who reside in dispersed communities in Huila, Cunene and Cuando Cubango provinces.[58] The constitution does not make specific reference to the rights of indigenous persons, and the San do not have adequate access to obtaining services such as health care, education and identification cards.[59] The government is reported to have allocated the San people’s traditional lands to businesses and well-educated elites without their knowledge, which has led violent conflict resulting in death of several San. Refer below to the sub-section on Landlessness and Dispossession.

LEVEL OF CORRUPTION

The Transparency International Corruption Perception Index scored Angola 18 out of 100, where 0 signals “Highly Corrupt” and 100 signals “Very Clean.” Angola ranked 164 out of 176 countries on that index.[60] Angola’s business environment remains one of the most challenging in the world, as investors must navigate pervasive corruption, an underdeveloped financial system, poor infrastructure, abundant but unskilled labor, and extremely high on-the-ground costs.[61]

NGOs have accused the government of nepotism in response to President José Eduardo dos Santos’s appointment of his daughter Isabel dos Santos as head of the state oil company Sonangol, which is the state’s biggest source of revenue and central to an extensive system of patronage.[62]

Socio-Economic Risk Factors

LEVEL OF NATIONAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Angola’s HDI value for 2015 is 0.533, which placed the country in the low human development category and ranked it 150 out of 188 countries and territories. When adjusted for inequality, the HDI falls to 0.336, a loss of 37.0 percent due to inequality.[63] For comparison, the HDI of neighboring and migrant-sending DRC is 0.435.

LEVEL AND EXTENT OF POVERTY

According to the World Bank, 30.13 percent of the population lives in poverty. 21.6 percent of the rural population lives in poverty.[64]

DEGREE OF GENDER INEQUALITY

Under the 1992 Land Act, women and men have equal access to land. However, the update to the law, the 2004 Land Law, does not include any statements regarding women’s equal access to land.[65] Under the Civil Code and Family Code, women have equal rights to property; however, it is not made explicitly clear if the law applies to non-land assets.[66]

Female literacy rates are considerably lower than male literacy rates. In total, 71 percent of the population is literate, but disaggregated by gender, 82 percent of males and 60 percent of females are literate.[67] Literacy rates are lower in part due to lower education rates for girls.[68] The African Development Bank reports that women in Angola may struggle to access credit due to illiteracy or a lack of assets that lenders require.[69]

Sexual harassment is not illegal, although it can be prosecuted under the criminal code.[70] The risk of sexual violence reportedly impedes women’s ability to move freely. Female refugees from DRC are subject to “arbitrary detention and sexual violence while imprisoned.”[71]

LANDLESSNESS OR DISPOSSESSION

The constitution of Angola recognizes the right to housing and quality of life and states that relocated persons should receive fair compensation.[72]

The government used eminent domain laws to seize property to make room for the Luanda-Bengo Economic Zone.[73] According to NGO sources and multiple press reports, hundreds of allegedly illegal homes in Zango were demolished by security forces leading to the displacement of thousands of people. It was reported that not all those who were relocated received fair, if any, compensation due to a lack of clear title permits for the destroyed property.[74] Amnesty International reported that communities were resettled into makeshift homes without adequate access to basic services such as water, electricity, sanitation, health care and education.[75]

The government has reportedly permitted businesses and well-educated elites to dispossess land from the San, which in some cases has led to the killing of San individuals who were allegedly hunting illegally on lands they had traditionally occupied.[76]

Documented Trafficking and Trafficking Risk in Key Commodity Supply Chains

Diamonds

DIAMONDS OVERVIEW

The largest reserves of diamonds are located in north-east Angola. Revenue is estimated at over USD 600 million, but high rates of smuggling prevent more precise data. [77] In 2013, Angola produced about 7 percent of global diamond output.[78] 60 percent of diamond resources are estimated to be unknown and exploration is ongoing.[79] Both formal commercial mining and artisanal diamond mining are practiced in Angola.[80]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN DIAMONDS

According to the U.S. Department of State 2016 Trafficking in Persons Report, diamonds are produced with forced or forced child labor in Angola.[81] The U.S. Department of Labor’s 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor and Forced Labor reports that diamonds are produced with forced labor and child labor in Angola. [82] According to some reports, trafficking in Angola’s diamond sector can be a result of bonded labor in which “sponsors” pay for a miner’s expenses and are reimbursed through a portion of the mined diamonds.[83]

Migrant workers are also present in the diamond mining sector in Angola and both labor and sex trafficking of adults and children from DRC reportedly occurs around alluvial diamond mining in Angola. The Angolan military has pursued a policy of ejecting Congolese migrants working in illegal diamond mines, and in 2012, Human Rights Watch documented significant abuses of these migrants at the hands of security forces.[84] Specifically, Human Rights Watch reported rape, physical torture, and denial of any due process.[85]

Mineral Fuels

MINERAL FUELS OVERVIEW

Angola is one of the top sub-Saharan African producers of oil, with estimated production levels of approximately 1.8 million barrels a day. Oil exports accounted for approximately 80 percent of total revenue from 2011-2013.[86] However, a drop in oil prices reduced this percentage to about 68 in 2014, harming Angola’s highly oil-dependent economy. [87] Most production comes from off-shore fields.[88] Foreign companies seeking business in the oil industry must form a production sharing agreement with Sonangol, a state-owned company, and must contract with Angolan companies.[89]

DOCUMENTED TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS RISK FACTORS IN MINERAL FUELS

Trafficking has been noted in the Angolan construction sector, which had been thriving in support of the oil sector[90] until about 2015. According to the U.S. Department of State, “Chinese, Southeast Asian, Brazilian, Namibian, Kenyan and possibly Congolese migrants” experience passport withholding, threats, confinement and abuse. These abuses were reportedly relatively prevalent in Chinese operated ventures.[91] The presence of temporary migrants from Brazil and other South American countries in the Angolan construction sector has also been noted.[92]

Related Resources

Resources for Understanding Legal and Policy-Related Risk Factors

Endnotes

[1] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.

[2] World Bank. Angola Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/angola/overview.

[3] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[4] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

World Bank. Angola Overview. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/angola/overview.

[5] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.

[6] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.

[7] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.

[8] Amnesty International. Annual Report. 2016-2017. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/.

[9] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper.

[10] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.

[11] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper.

[12] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/angola.

[13] Amnesty International. Annual Report. 2016-2017. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/.

[14] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.

[15]U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[16] World Bank. International migrant stock (% of population).2008 revision. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SM.POP.TOTL.ZS?locations=AO&name_desc=false.

[17] International Office of Migration. http://www.iom.int/world-migration#source.

[18] United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. Population Statistics. 2015. http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/overview.

[19] The United Nations Refugee Agency. Angola: UNHCR airlifts aid to newly-arrived refugees from the DRC. April 2017.  http://www.unhcr.org/afr/news/press/2017/4/5905bfeb4/angola-unhcr-airlifts-aid-newly-arrived-refugees-drc.html.

[20] International Office of Migration. http://www.iom.int/world-migration#source.

[21]International Trade Center. Trade Map. 2016. http://www.trademap.org/Product_SelProductCountry.aspx?nvpm=1|024||||TOTAL|||2|1|2|2|1||1|1|1.

[22] International Trade Centre. Trade Map. http://www.trademap.org.

[23] Office of the United States Trade Representative. Angola. https://ustr.gov/countries-regions/africa/southern-africa/angola.

[24] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[25] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[26] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[27] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[28] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[29] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[30] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[31] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[32] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[33] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[34] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[35] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[36] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[37] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[38] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[39] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[40] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/angola.

[41] Freedom House. Freedom in the World. 2016. https://freedomhouse.org/report/freedom-world/2016/angola.

[42] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[43] Human Rights Watch. World Report. 2016. https://www.hrw.org/world-report/2016/country-chapters/angola.

[44] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[45] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[46] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[47] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[48] The Fund for Peace. Fragile States Index. 2016. http://fundforpeace.org/fsi/data/.

[49] Amnesty International. Annual Report. 2016-2017. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/#.

[50] U.S. Department of State. Angola 2017 Crime & Safety Report. 2017 https://www.osac.gov/pages/ContentReportDetails.aspx?cid=21832.

[51] United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Global Homicide Study. 2013. https://www.unodc.org/gsh/en/data.html.

[52] Human Rights Watch. “’If You Come Back We Will Kill You’ Sexual Violence and other Abuses against Congolese Migrants during Expulsions from Angola.” May 20, 2012.  https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/05/20/if-you-come-back-we-will-kill-you/sexual-violence-and-other-abuses-against.

[53] Human Rights Watch. “’If You Come Back We Will Kill You’ Sexual Violence and other Abuses against Congolese Migrants during Expulsions from Angola.” May 20, 2012. https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/05/20/if-you-come-back-we-will-kill-you/sexual-violence-and-other-abuses-against.

[54] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[55]U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[56] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[57] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[58] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[59] Transparency International. Corruption Perceptions Index. 2016. http://www.transparency.org/news/feature/corruption_perceptions_index_2016#table.

[60] U.S. Department of State. Investment Climate Statement. 2016. https://www.state.gov/e/eb/rls/othr/ics/investmentclimatestatements/index.htm#wrapper.

[61] Amnesty International. Annual Report. 2016-2017. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/.

[62] United Nations Development Program. Human Development Report Explanatory Note. 2016. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/all/themes/hdr_theme/country-notes/AGO.pdf.

[63] World Bank. Rural poverty gap at national poverty lines (%). 2008. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SI.POV.RUGP?locations=AO.

[64] Social Institutions & Gender Index. Angola. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/angola.

[65] Social Institutions & Gender Index. Angola. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/angola.

[66] Central Intelligence Agency. The World Factbook: Angola. 2017. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ao.html.

[67] Social Institutions & Gender Index. Angola. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/angola.

[68] Social Institutions & Gender Index. Angola. 2017. http://www.genderindex.org/country/angola.

[69] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report 2016. Angola. https://www.state.gov/j/drl/rls/hrrpt/humanrightsreport/#wrapper.

[70] Social Institutions and Gender Index. Angola. http://www.genderindex.org/country/angola.

[71] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[72] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[73] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[74] Amnesty International. Annual Report. 2016-2017. https://www.amnesty.org/en/countries/africa/angola/report-angola/.

[75] U.S. Department of State. Human Rights Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/265434.pdf.

[76] Nirit Ben-Ari. “Angola’s economy grows, but what about the poor?” The Africa Report. October 17, 2014. http://www.theafricareport.com/Southern-Africa/angolas-economy-grows-but-what-about-the-poor.html.

[77] U.S Geological Survey. 2013 Minerals Yearbook. 2013. https://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/country/2013/myb3-2013-ao.pdf.             

[78] World Bank. The World Bank in Angola. 2017. http://www.worldbank.org/en/country/angola/overview.

[79] Partnership Africa Canada. Diamond Industry Annual Review. Angola. 2007. http://www.pacweb.org/Documents/annual-reviews-diamonds/Angola-AR2007-eng.pdf.

[80] U.S. Department of State. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

[81] U.S. Department of Labor. 2016 List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor. 2016. https://www.dol.gov/sites/default/files/documents/ilab/reports/child-labor/findings/TVPRA_Report2016.pdf.

[82] Allen, Michael. “The ‘Blood Diamond’ Resurfaces.” The Wall Street Journal. June 19, 2010. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704198004575311282588959188.html.

[83] The Diamonds and Human Security Commission. Diamond Industry Annual Review.2014. http://dspace.africaportal.org/jspui/bitstream/123456789/34347/1/Angola-AR-2004-eng.pdf?1.

[84] Human Rights Watch. “’If You Come Back We Will Kill You’ Sexual Violence and other Abuses against Congolese Migrants during Expulsions from Angola.” May 20, 2012. https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/05/20/if-you-come-back-we-will-kill-you/sexual-violence-and-other-abuses-against.

[85] Human Rights Watch. “’If You Come Back We Will Kill You’ Sexual Violence and other Abuses against Congolese Migrants during Expulsions from Angola.” May 20, 2012. https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/05/20/if-you-come-back-we-will-kill-you/sexual-violence-and-other-abuses-against.

[86] U.S Energy Information Administration. Angola. 2016. https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.cfm?iso=AGO.

[87] U.S Energy Information Administration. Angola. 2016. https://www.eia.gov/beta/international/analysis.cfm?iso=AGO.

[88] U.S Exports. Angola – Oil and Gas. 2017. https://www.export.gov/article?id=Angola-Oil-and-Gas.

[89] Open Society Initiative for Southern Africa. Angola’s Oil Industry Operations. 2011. http://www.osisa.org/sites/default/files/angola_oil_english_final_less_photos.pdf.

[90] Norimitsu Onishi. “Angola’s Corrupt Building Boom: ‘Like Opening a Window and Throwing Out Money.’” New York Times. June 24, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/24/world/africa/angola-luanda-jose-eduardo-dos-santos.html?mcubz=1.

[91] U.S State Department. Trafficking in Persons Report. 2016. https://www.state.gov/documents/organization/258876.pdf.

[92] Evelyn Nieves. “Portuguese Migrants Struggle to Find Relief in Angola.” New York Times. December 17, 2015. https://lens.blogs.nytimes.com/2015/12/17/portuguese-migrants-struggle-to-find-relief-in-angola/?mcubz=1.